Application of polyamines in horticulture: A review

Paper Details

Review Paper 01/05/2017
Views (441) Download (104)

Application of polyamines in horticulture: A review

Nadeem Akhtar Abbasi, Irfan Ali, Ishfaq Ahmad Hafiz, Ahmad Sattar Khan
Int. J. Biosci.10( 5), 319-342, May 2017.
Certificate: IJB 2017 [Generate Certificate]


Polyamines are ubiquitous organic compounds in plants that are involved in various physiological functions; they play key role in the regulation of ion channels and molecule transportation in the cell membrane. Being positively charged, polyamines can bind to macromolecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins, hence stabilize them against free radicals activity. Their importance with respect to plant growth and development is already established especially their role against stresses is of prime concerns to the scientists. It is revealed by various scientists that exogenous application of polyamines protects the plants from stress by expressing various stress relevant genes. Polyamines also play direct defensive role during stress by eliciting cell death at the sight of pathogen entry. A lot of work has been done on various aspects of fruits, vegetables and ornamental crops using exogenous polyamines. Present paper is developed to gather all possible published research from reliable resources in a logical sequence especially related to horticulture, so the researchers and other stake holders related to this field can get the benefit.


Abd-El-Wahed MSA, Karima M, Gamal-El-Din M. 2005. Effect of putrescine and atonik on growth and some biochemical constituents as well as essential oil composition of chamomile plant (Chamomilla recutita L., Rausch.). Journal of agriculture science. Mansoura University 30, 869-882.

Abd-El-Wahed MSA, Gamal El-Din KM.  2004. Stimulation effect of spermidine and stigma sterol on growth, flowering, biochemical constituents and essential oil of chamomile plant (Chamomill recutita L., Rausch). Bulgarian Journal of Plant Physiology  30, 48-60.

Ahmad SK, Sing Z, Abbasi NA.  2007. Pre storage putrescine application suppresses ethylene biosynthesis and retards fruits softening during low temperature storage in ‘Angeline’ plum. Postharvest Biology and Technology 46, 36-46.

Alexieva V, Ivanov S, Sergiev I, Karanov E. 2003. Interaction between stresses. Bulgarian Journal of Plant Physiology Special Issue. 1-17.

Ali EAM, Sarrwy SMA, Hassan HSA. 2010. Improving canino apricot trees productivity by foliar spraying with polyamines. Journal of applied science research 6, 1359-1365.

Al-Obeed RS. 2010. Improving fruit quality, marketability and storagability of Barhee date palm. World Applied Science Journal 9(6), 630-637.

Altman A, Kaur-Sawhney R, Galston AW. 1977. Stabilization of oat protoplast through polyamine-mediated inhibition of senescence. Plant Physiology 60, 570-57.

Altman A, Friedman R, Amir D, Levin N. 1982. Polyamine effects and metabolism in plants under stress conditions. In: Wareing, P.F. (ed.), Plant Growth Substances, Academic Press, London 483-494 p.

Amri E, Mirzaei M, Moradi M, Zare K. 2011. The effects of spermidine and putrescine polyamines on growth of pomegranate (Punica granatum L. cv ‘Rabbab’) in salinity circumstance. International Journal of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 3, 43-49.

Anderson JN, Martin RO. 1973. Identification of cadaverine in Pisum sativum. Phytochemistry 12, 443–6.

Aronova EE, Shevyakova NI, Sresenko, LA, Kuznesov VIV. 2005. Cadaverine-induced induction of superoxide dismutase gene expression in Mesmbryanthemum crystallinum L. Doklady of Biological Science 403, 1-3.

Autar K, Subhash M,   Minocha C,   Minocha R,   Avtar K.  2010. Polyamines and cellular metabolism in plants: transgenic approaches reveal different responses to diamine putrescine versus higher polyamines spermidine and spermine. Amino Acids 38, 405–413.

Aziz A, Brun O, Audran JC. 2001. Involvement of polyamines in the control of fruitlet physiological abscission in grapevine (Vitis vinifera). Physiology Plantarum 113, 50-58.

Barman K, Asrey R, Pal RK. 2011a. Putrescine and carnauba wax pretreatments alleviate chilling injury, enhance shelf life and preserve pomegranate fruit quality during cold storage.  Journal of Food Science and Technology 51(1), 111-117.

Barman K, Asrey R, Pal RK. 2011b. Influence of putrescine and carnauba wax on functional and sensory quality of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits during storage. Journal of Food Science and Technology 51, 111-117.

Basiouny FM. 1996. Blueberry fruit quality and storability influenced by postharvest application of polyamines and heat treatments. Proceedings of Florida State Horticulture Society 109, 269-272.

Bauer H, Senger M. 1979. Photosynthesis of ivy leaves (Hedera lelix L.) after heat stress. 11. Activities of RuBP carboxylase, Hill reaction and chloroplast ultra structure. Journal of Plant Physiology 95, 359-369.

Berry JA, Bjorkman O. 1980. Photosynthetic response and adaptation to temperature in higher plants. Annual Reviews of Plant Physiology 31, 491-543. http://dx.doi.10.1146/annualreview.pp.31.060180.002423

Besford RT, Richardson CM, Campos JL, Tiburcio AF. 1993. Effects of polyamines on stabilization of molecular complexes in thylakoid membranes of osmotically – stressed oat leaves. Plantarum 189, 201-206.

Borrell A, Carbonell L, Farras, R, Puig-Parellada P, Tiburcio AF. 1997. Polyamines inhibit lipid peroxidation in senescing oat leaves. Physiology Plantarum 99, 385-390.

Bors W, Langebartels C, Michel C, Sandermann H. 1989. Polyamines as radical scavengers and protectants against ozone damage. Phytochemistry 28, 1589-1595.

Botha ML, Whitehead CS. 1992. The effect of polyamines on ethylene synthesis during normal and pollination induced senescence of Petunia hybrida L. flower. Plantarum 188, 478-483.

Bregoli AM, Scaramagli S, Costa G, Sabatini E, Ziosi V, Bionsim S, Torrigiani P. 2002. Peach (Prunus persica) fruit ripening: aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and exogenous polyamines affect ethylene emission and flesh firmness. Physiology Plantarum 114, 472-481.

Brüggemann UI, Pottosin II, Schönknecht G. 1998. Cytoplasmic polyamines block the fast-activating vacuolar cation channel. Plant Journal 16, 101-105.

Buchanan-Wollastonsd V. 1997. The molecular biology of leaf senescence. Journal of Experimental Botany 48, 181-199.

Callan NW. 1977. Effect of boron sprays on fruit set, fruit quality, boron distribution, and floral morphology of ‘Italian’ prune (Prunus Domestica L.). PhD, Oregon State University Corvallis. (Dissertation Abstract International. 77-15366).

Chadha KL. 1993. Fruit drop in mango. In: Chadha, K.L., Pareek, O.P. (Eds.), Advances in Horticulture, vol. 3. Malhotra Publishing House, New Delhi. 1131–1166.

Chen HH, Shen ZY, Li PH. 1982. Adaptability of crop plants to high temperature stress. Crop Science 22, 719-725.

Cheng L, Zou Y, Ding S, Zhang J, Yu X, Cao J, Lu G. 2009. Polyamine accumulation in transgenic tomato enhances the tolerance to high temperature stress. Journal of integrated plant biology. 51, 489-99.

Cohen E, Arad S, Heimer YM, Mizrahi Y. 1982. Participation of ornithine decarboxylase in early stages of tomato fruit development. Plant Physiology. 70, 540-543.​1104/​pp.​70.​2.​54.0

Collinge DB, Kragh KM, Mikkelsen JD, Nielsen KK, Rasmussen U, Vad K. 1993. Plant chitinases. Plant Journal. 3, 31-40.

Costa G,   Biasi R, Bagni N. 1986. Effect of putrescine on fruiting performance of apple (cv. Hi Early). Acta Horticulturae. 179, 355-361.

Costa G, Bagni N. 1983.  Effects of polyamines on fruit set of apple.  Horticulture Science 18, 50-61.

Cowely T, Walters DR. 2002. Polyamine metabolism in barley reacting hypersensitively to the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis spp.  Plant Cell Environment 25, 461-468.

Crisosto CH, Lombard PB, Sugar D. 1988. Putrescine influences ovule senescence, fertilization time and fruit set in ‘Comice’ pear. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 113, 708-712.

Crisosto C,   Garner D,  Sibbett S, Day K. 1992. Maturity studies on Asian pear. Central Valley Postharvest Newsletter 1, 1-3.

Dixon RA, Paiva NL.  1995. Stress-induced phenylpropanoid metabolism. Plant Cell 7, 1085-1097.

Downs CG, Lovell PH. 1986. The effect of spermidine and putrescine on the senescence of cut carnations. Plant Physiology 66, 679-684.

Drolet G, Dumbroff EB, Legg RL, Thompson JE. 1986. Radical scavenging properties of polyamines. Phytochemistry 25, 365-371.

El-Abagy HMH, Rashid EM, Abdel-Mawgoud  AMR, El-Greadly NHM. 2010. Physiological and biochemical effects of some bioregulators on growth, productivity and quality of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) plant. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 6, 683-690.

El-Lethy SR, Ayad HS, Talaat IM. 2010. Physiological effect of some antioxidants on flax plant (Linum usitatssimum L.). World Journal of Agriculture. Sciences 6, 622-629.

Evans PT, Malmberg RL. 1989. Do polyamines have roles in plant development? Annual Reviews of Plant Physiology Plant Molecular Biology. 40, 235-269.

Ewart A, Kliewer WM.  1977. Effects of controlled day and night temperatures and nitrogen on fruit set, ovule fertility, and fruit composition of several wine grape cultivars.  American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 28, 88-95.

Farag KM, Kasem HA, Hussein A.  1998. Enhancing color formation of flame seedless grapes using safe compounds or low dose of ethephone. Emirates Journal of Agriculture Science 10, 47-57.

Feirer RP, Wann SR, Einspahr DW. 1985.  The effects of spermidine synthase on in vitro plant development. Plant Growth Regulations 3, 319-327.

Flores HE, Filner P. 1985. Polyamine catabolism in higher plants: characterization of pyrroline dehydrogenase. Plant Growth Regulators 3, 277-291.

Fouad MB. 1996. Blueberry fruit quality and storability influenced by postharvest application of polyamines and heat treatments. Proceedings of Florida State Horticulture Society 109, 269-272.

Franco-Mora O, Tanabe K, Itai A, Tamura F, Itamura H. 2005. Relationship between endogenous free polyamine content and ethylene evolution during fruit growth and ripening of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). Journal of Japanese Society for Horticulture Sciences 74, 221–227.

Galston AW, Flores HE. 1991. Polyamines and plant morphogenesis, IN: Slocum R, Flores HE. (eds). The biochemistry and physiology of polyamines in plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florid. 175-186 p.

Galston AW,  Kaur-Sawhney R, 1980. Polyamines and plant cells. What’s New in Plant Physiology 11, 5-8.

Garriz A, Dalmasso M, Piecckenstain FL, Ruiz O.  2003. The putrescine analogue 1-aminooxy-3-aminopropane perturbs polyamine metabolism in the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Archives of Microbiology 180,169-175.

Gharib AA,  Ahmed AH. 2005. Response of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.) to foliar application of putrescine, glucose, foliar feed and silicon. Journal of Agriculture Sciences Mansoura University 30, 7563-7579.

Gomez-Galindo F, Herppich W, Gekas V, Sjoholm I. 2004. Factors affecting quality and postharvest properties of vegetables. Integration of water relations and metabolism. Critical Reviews of Food Science and Nutrition 44, 139-154.

Groppa MD, Benavides MP. 2008. Polyamines and abiotic stress. Recent advances. Amino Acids 34, 35-45.

Guye MG, Vigh L, Wilson JM. 1986. Polyamine titre in relation to chill sensitivity of Phaseolus sp. Journal of Experimental Botany 37, 1036-1043.

Haggag WM. 2005. Polyamines: induction and effect on rust disease control of bean. Plant Pathology Bulletin 14, 89-102.

Hammerschmidt R, Nuckles EM, Kuc J. 1982. Association of enhanced peroxidase activity with induced systemic resistance of cucumber to Colletotrichum lagenarium. Physiology and Plant Pathology 20, 73–82.

Hiraga S, Ito H, Yamakawa H, Ohtsubo N, Seo S,  Mitsuhara  I, Matsui H, Homma M, Ohashi Y. 2000. An HR-induced tobacco peroxidase gene is responsive to spermine, but not to salicylate, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interaction 13, 210- 216.

Huber DJ. 1983. The role of cell wall hydrolyase in fruit softening. Horticulture Reviews 5, 169-219.

Hückelhoven R, Fodor J, Preis C, Kogel KH.  1999. Hypersensitive cell death and papilla formation in barley attacked by the powdery mildew fungus are associated with H2O2 but not with salicylic acid accumulation. Plant Physiology 119, 1251–1260.

Hye-Sook K, Chang-duck J. 2006. Polyamines as antioxidant protectors against paraquat damage in Radish (Raphanus Sativus L.) cotyledons. Journal of Plant Biology 49, 237-246.

Jiménez-Cervantes C, Martínez-Esparza M, Solano F, Lozano JA, García- Borron JC. 1998. Molecular interactions within the melanogenic complex: formation of heterodimers of tyrosinase and TRP1 from B16 mouse melanoma. Biochemistry Bio-physics Research Communication 253, 761- 767.

Johnson TD. 1996. Modulation of channel function by polyamines. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 17, 22-27.

Jose MB, Carbonell J, Conejero V.  1991. Polyamines in plant infected by citrus exocortis viroid or treated with silver ions and ethephon. Plant Physiology 96, 1053-1059.

Kassem HA, Al-Obeed RS, Ahmed MA, Omar AKH, 2011. Productivity, fruit quality and profitability of jujube trees improvement by Preharvest application of agro-chemicasl. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 9, 628-637.

Kaur-Sawhney R, Shih L, Flores HE, Galston AW. 1982. Relation of polyamine synthesis and titer to aging and senescence in oat leaves. Plant Physiology 69, 405-410.

Kaur-Sawhney R, Tiburcio AF,   Altabella T,  Galston AW.   2003. Polyamines in plants: An overview. Journal of Cell Molecular Biology 2, 1-12.

Khan AS, Singh Z, Abbasi NA, Swinny EE. 2008. Pre or post harvest application of putrescine and low temperature storage affect fruit ripening and quality of ‘angeline’ plum. Journal of Science Food and Agriculture  88, 1686-1695.

Khan AS, Singh Z, Abbasi NA. 2007. Pre storage putrescine application suppresses ethylene biosynthesis and retards fruit softening during low temperature storage in ‘Angeline’ plum. Postharvest Biology and Technology 46, 36-46.

Kim H, Jin C. 2006. Polyamines as antioxidant protectors against paraquat damage in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cotyledons. Journal of Plant Biology 49, 237-246.

Kramer GF, Norman HA, Krizek DT, Mirecki RM. 1991. Influence of UV-B radiation on polyamies, lipid peroxidation and membrane lipid in cucumber. Phytochemistry 30, 2101-2108.

Kramer GF, Wang YC. 1989. Reduction of chilling injury in zucchini squash bytemperature management, Horticulture Science 24, 995– 996.

Kristensen BK, Bloch H, Rasmussen SK, 1999. Barley coleoptile peroxidases. Purification, molecular cloning, and induction by pathogens. Plant Physiology 120, 501-512.

Kumar ALR, Balasubramanian P. 2000. Induction of phenols in groundnut rust resistance. International Archives Newsletter 20, 55-57.

Königshofer H, Lechner S. 2002. Are polyamines involved in the synthesis of heat-shock proteins in cell suspension cultures of tobacco and alfalfa in response to high-temperature stress. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 40, 51-59.

Kushad MM, Yelenosky G. 1987. Evaluation of polyamine and proline levels during low temperature acclimation of citrus. Plant Physiology 84, 692-695.

Lawton K,   Friedrich L, Hunt M,  Weymann K, Delaney T,  Kessmann H, Staub T, Ryals J.  1996. Benzothiadiazole induces disease resistance in Arabidopsis by activation of the systemic acquired resistance signal transduction pathway. Plant Journal 10, 71–82.

Lee MM, Lee SH, Park KY. 1997. Effects of Spermine on Ethylene Biosynthesis in Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Flowers during Senescence. Journal of Plant Physiology 151, 68–73.

Lelievre JM, Latche A, Jones B, Bouzayen M, Pech JC. 1997. Ethylene and fruit ripening. Physiology Plantarum 101, 727-739.

Lester GE. 2000. Polyamines and their cellular anti-senescence properties in honey dew muskmelon fruit. Plant Science 160, 105-112.

Li CZ, Wei XP, Li W, Wang GX.  2004. Relationship between Ethylene and Spermidine in the Leaves of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Seedlings under Root Osmotic Stress. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 51, 372–378.

Liu J, Nada K, Honda C, Kitashiba H,  Wen X,  Pang X,  Moriguchi T.  2006. Polyamines biosynthesis of apple callus under salt stress: importance of arginine decarboxylase pathway in stress response. Journal of Experimental Botany. 57, 2589-2599.

Liu J, Nada K, Honda C, Kitashiba H,  Wen X, Pang X,  Moriguchi T.  2006. Role of polyamines in peach fruit development and storage. Tree physiology 26, 791-798.

Liu JH, Honda C, Moriguchi T.  2006. Involvement of polyamines in floral and fruit development. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly. 40, 51-58.

Liu K,   Fu HF, Bei Q, Luan S. 2000. Inward potassium channel in guard cells as a target for polyamine regulation of stomatal movements. Plant Physiology 124, 1315-1325.

Lombard PB, Richardson DG. 1982. Increased fruit set and cropping of ‘Comice’ pear trees with an ethylene inhibitor, aminoethoxyvinylglycine. Acta Horticulturae 124,165-169.

Lombard PB, Williams RR, Thompson MM. 1971. Effective pollination –the facts of life behind uniform pear cropping. Proceedings of Oregon Horticulture Society 62, 31-36.

Maestri E, Kluevan N, Perrotta C, Gulli M, Nguyen  HT, Marmiroli N.  2002. Molecular genetics of heat tolerance and heat shock proteins in cereals. Plant Molecular Biology 48, 667-681.

Mahgoub MH, Abd El Aziz NG, Mazhar AMA.  2011. Response of dahlia piñata L. plant to foliar spray with putrescine and thiamine on growth, flowering and photosynthetic pigments. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences 10, 769-775.

Mahros KM, El-Saady MB, Mona HM,   Afaf MH, Imran ME. 2011. Effect of putrescine and uniconazole treatments on flower characters and photosynthetic pigments of Chraysanthemum indicum L. plant. Journal of American Society for Horticulture Sciences 7, 399-408.

Malik AU, Sing Z. 2005. Pre storage application of polyamines improves shelf life and fruit quality in magngo. Journal of Horticulture Sciences and Biotechnology 80, 363-369.

Malik AU, Sing Z. 2006. Improved fruit retention, yield and fruit quality in mango with exogenous application of polyamines. Scientia Horticulturae 110, 167-174. http://dx.doi.10.1016/j.scienta.2006.06.028

Malik AU, Singh Z. 2003. Abscission of mango fruitlets as influenced by biosynthesis of polyamines. Journal of Horticulture Sciences and Biotechnology 78, 721–727.

Martinez- Romero D, Valero D, Serrano M, Martinez-Sanchez F, Riquelme F. 1999. Effects fo post harvest putrescine and calcium treatments on reducing mechanical damage and polyamines and abscisic acid levels during lemon storage. Journal of Science Food and Agriculture 79, 1589-1595.

Martinez- Romero D,  Valero D, Riquelme F, Zuzunaga M,  Serrano M, Burlo F,  A Carbonell. 2001. Infiltration of putrescine into apricot helps handling and storage. Acta Horticulturae 553, 189-192.

Martin-Tanguy J. 2001. Metabolism and function of polyamines in plants: recent development (new approaches). Plant Growth Regulation 34, 135–148. http://dx.doi.10.1023/A:1013343106574

Martinez-Tellez MA, Ramos-clamont MG, Gardea AA, Vargas-Arispuro I. 2002. Effect of infiltrated polyamines on polygalaturonase activity and chilling inury responses in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). Biochemistryistry. Biophysics Research Communication 295, 98-101.

Marzouk HA,   Kassem HA.  2011. Extending harvest season and enhancing the shelf life of navel oranges by Preharvest treatments with different bioregulators. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environonmental Sciences 10, 396-403.

Marzouk HA, Kassem HA. 2011. Improving yield, quality and shelf life of Thompson seedless grapevine by preharvest foliar applications. Scientia Horticulturae 130, 425-430.

Mc Williams JR. 1980. Adaptation of plants to water and high temperature stress; summary and synthesis. In N.C. Turner and P. J. Kramer (eds). Adaptioatin of plantas to water and high temperature stress. Jhon Wiley, New York. 444-447 p.

Mcdonald RE, Kushad MM. 1986. Accumulation of putrescine during chilling injury of fruits. Plant Physiology 82, 324-326.

Mengoli M, Chriqui D, Bangni N. 1992. Protein, free amino- acid and polyamine contents during development of hairy root Nicotiana–tabacum plants. Plant Physiology 139, 697-702.

Mirdehghan SH, Rahemi M, Serrano M.  2007b. The application of polyamines by pressure or immersion as a tool to maintain fuctional properties in stored pomegranate arils. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 55, 755-760.

Mirdehghan SH, Rahemi M, Castillo S, Martinez-Romero, Maria Serrano D, Valero D. 2007. Pre- storage application of polyamines by pressure immersion improves shelf life of pomegranate stored at chilling temperateure by increasing endogenous polyamine levels. Postharvest Biology and Technology 44, 26-33.

Mohammadi M, Kazemi H. 2002. Changes in peroxidase and polyphenol activity in susceptible and resistant wheat heads inoculated with Fusarium graminearum and induced resistance. Plant Science 162, 491–498.

Muhitch MJ, Fletcher JS. 1985. Influence of culture age and spermidine treatment on the accumulation of phenolic compounds in suspension cultures. Plant Physiology 78, 25-29.

Murkowski A. 2001. Heat stress and spermidine: effect on chlorophyll fluorescence in tomato plants. Biology Plantarum 44, 53-57. 10.1023/A:1017966203859.

Nahed GA, Lobana ST, Soad MMI. 2009. Some studies on the effect of putrescine, ascorbic acid and thiamine on growth, flowering and some chemical constituents of gladiolus plants nubaria. Ozean Journal of Applied Sciences 2, 169-179.

Nair S,   Singh Z. 2004. Chilling injury in mango fruit in relation to biosynthesis of free polyamines. Journal of Horticulture Sciences and Biotechnology 79, 515-522.

Nichols R, Bufler G, Mor Y, Fujino DW, Reid MS.  1983. Changes in ethylene production and l-aminocyclopropane- 1-carboxylic acid content of pollinated carnation flowers. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation. 2, l-8.

Ormrod DP, Becker son DW. 1986. Polyamines as antiozonants for tomato. Horticulture Science 21, 1070-1071.

Pandey S, Ranade SA, Nagar PK, Kumar N. 2000. Role of polyamine and ethylene as modulators of plant senescence. Journal of Bioscience 25, 291-299.

Parida AK, Das AB. 2005. Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants. A Review.  Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 60, 324-349.

Prakash L, Dutt M, Prathapsenan G. 1988. NaCl alters contents of nucleic acid, protein, polyamine and the activity of agmatine deiminase during germination and seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 15, 260–7.

Paulsen GM. 1994. High temperature response of crop plants. In K. J. Boote, J. M. Bennett, T. R. Sinclair, and E. M. Paulsen (eds), Physiology and determination of crop yield. Amer. Soc.  Agron. Madison  365-389 p.

Pei ZM, Kuchitsu K, Ward JM, Schwarz M, Schroeder JI. 1997. Differential abscisic acid regulation of guard cell slow anion channels in Arabidopsis wild type and abi I and abi Z mutants. Plant Cell 9, 402-423.

Pellegrini L, Rohfritsch O, Fritig B, Legrand M. 1994. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in tobacco. Plant Physiology 106, 877886.

Perez-vicente  A,  Martinez romero D,  Carbonell A,  Burlo F,  Serrano M,  Valero D,  Riquelm F,  Zuzunaga M.  2001. Role of exogenous putrescine on the metabolism of conjugated polyamines in mechnically damaged plum during storage. Acta Horticulturae 553, 193-194.

Petkou IT, Prista TS,  Sfakiotakis EM.  2004. Effect of polyamines on ethylene production, respiration and ripening of kiwifruit. Journal of Horticulture Science and Biotechnology 79, 977-980.

Pilar GJ,  Rodrigo M,  Robaina RR.  1998. Influence of plant growth regulators, polyamines and glycerol interaction on growth and morphogenesis of carposporelings of Grateloupia cultured in vitro. Journal of Applied Phycology 10, 95–100.

Ponce MT, Guinazu M, Tizio R. 2002.  Effect of putrescine on embryo development in the stenosper mocarpic grape Cvs. Emperatriz and Fantasy. Vitis 41, 53-54.

Postel S. 1993. Water in crisis. A guide to the world’s fresh water resources, oxford university press, Newyork pp. 56-66.

Priebe A, Jager HJ. 1978. Effect of NaCl on the levels of putrescine and related polyamines in plants differing in salt tolerance. Plant Science. Letter 12, 365–9.

Qin GZ, Tian SP, Xu Y, Ya KW. 2003. Enhancement of biocontrol efficacy of antagonistic yeasts by salicylic acid in sweet cherry fruit. Physiology Molecular Plant Pathology 62, 147154.

Qing-Sheng WU, Zou Y.  2009. The effect of dual application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and polyamines upon growth and nutrient uptake on trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliate) Seedlings. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 37, 95-98.

Rao MV, Ormrod DP. 1995. Ozone Exposure decreases UBV sensitivity in a UVB-sensetive flavonoid mutant of Arabiodopsis. Photochemisty and Photobiology 61, 71-78.

Richard FJ, Coleman RG. 1952. Occurrence of putrescine in potassium deficient barley. Nature 170, 460.

Rugini E,   Mencuccini M. 1985. Increased yield in the olive with putrescine treatment. Horticulture Science 20, 102-103.

Roy M, Ghosh B. 1996.  Polyamines, both common and uncommon, under heat stress in rice (Oriza sativa) callus. Physiology Plantarum 98, 196-200.

Saba MK, Arzani K,  Barzegar M.  2012. Postharvest polyamines application alleviates chilling injury and effects apricot storage ability. Journal of Agriculture and Food chemistry 60, 8947-8953.

Saftner RA, Baldi BG. 1990. Polyamine levels and tomato fruit development: Possible interaction with ethylene. Plant Physiology 92, 547-550.

Schlumbaum A,  Mauch F,  Vogeli U, Boller T.  1986. Plant chitinases are potent inhibitors of fungal growth. Nature 324, 365–367.

Schroder M,  Hahlbrock K,  Kombrink E. 1992. Temporal and spatial patterns of β-1, 3-glucanase and chitinase induction in potato leaves infected by Phytophthora infestans. Plant Journal 2, 161–172.

Serrano M,  Martinez-Romero D, Guillen F, Valero D.  2003. Effect of exogenous putrescine on improving shelf life of four plum cultivars. Postharvest Biology and Technology 30, 259-271.

Serrano M, Romojaro F, Casas JL, Acosta M. 1991. Ethylene and polyamine metabolism in climacteric and nonclimacteric carnation flowers. Horticulture Science 26, 894-896.

Shawky NBT. 2003. Physiological studies on the effect of salinity, ascorbic acid and putrescine on sweet pepper plant. Ph. D. thesis, Fac. Agric., Cairo University, Egypt 21, 1070-1071.

Singh Z, Janes J. 2000. Regulation of fruit set and retention in mango with exogenous application of polyamines and their biosynthesis inhibitors. Acta Horticulturae 509, 675–680.

Shevyakova NI, Arutyunova NV, Stroganov BP. 1981. Distribution of arginine and putrescine metabolism in cotton leaves in the presence of excessive Na2SO4  Sov. Plant Physiology 28, 594-600.

Singh Z, Singh L. 1995. Increased fruit set and retention in mango with exogenous application of polyamines. Journal of Horticulture Science 70, 271–277.

Slathia S, Sharma A, Choudhary SP. 2012. Influence of exogenously applied epibrassinolide and putrescine on protein content, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in Lycopersicon esculentum under salinity stress. Amererican Journal of Plant Sciences 3, 714-720.

Smart CM. 1994. Gene expression during leaf senescence. New Phytologist 126, 419-448.

Smith TA. 1971.  The occurrence, metabolism and function of amines in plants. Biological Reviews 46, 201-241.

Smith TA. 1973. Amine levels in mineral deficient Hordeum vulgare leaves. Phytochemisty 12, 2093–100.

Smith TA. 1982. The Function and metabolism of polyamines in higher plants. In PF Wareing, ed, Plant Growth Substances. Academic Press, New York pp. 463-472.

Smith T.A. 1984.  Putrescine and inorganic ions. Adv. Phytochemistry 18, 7-54.

Solcum RD, Kaur-Sawhney R, Galston AW.  1984. The physiology and biochemistry of polyamines in plants. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 235, 283-303.

Stanley DW. 1991. Biological membrane deterioration and associated quality losses in food tissues. Crititical Reviews of Food Science and Nutrition 30, 487-553.

Song J, Nada K, Tachibana S. 1999.  Ameliorative effect of polyamines on the high temperature inhibition of in vitro pollen germination in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Scintia Horticulturae 80, 203–212.

Song J, Nada K, Tachibana S. 2001. The early increase of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity is essential for the normal germination and tube growth in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) pollen. Plant Science 161, 507–515.

Song J, Nada K, Tachibana S. 1999. Ameliorative effect of polyamines on high temperature inhibition of in vitro pollen germination in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Scientia Horticulturae 80, 203-212.

Stern RA, Gazit S.  2000. Reducing fruit drop in lychee with PGR sprays. In: Basra, A. (Ed.), Plant Growth Regulators in Agriculture stress. In J. L. Key, T. Kosuge, eds, Cellular and Molecular Biology of Plant Stress.AR Liss Inc, New York 93-114 p.

Stress, In J, Key L, Kosuge T. Cellular and Molecular Biology of Plant Stress. Alan R. Liss, Inc, New York 93-114 p.

Suttle JC. 1981. Effect of polyamines on ethylene production. Phytochemistry 20, 1477-1480.

Takahashi T, Kakehi J.   2010. Polyamines: ubiquitous polycations with unique roles in growth and stress responses. Annuals of Botany 105, 1–6.

Tattini M, Heimler D, Traversi ML, Pieroni A. 1993. Polyamine analysis in salt stressed plants of olive (Olea europea L.). Journal of Horticulture Science 68, 613-617.

Talaat IM, Balbaa LK. 2010. Physiological response of sweet basil plants (Ocimum basilicum L.) to putrescine and trans-cinnamic acid. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science 8, 438-445.

Talaat I, Bekheta MA, Mahgoub MH. 2005. Physiological response of periwinkle plants (Catharanthus roseurs L.) to Tryptophan and Putrescine. International  Journal of Agriculture and Biology 7, 210-213.

Talaat NB, 2003. Physiological studies on the effect of salinity, ascorbic acid and putrescine on sweet pepper plant. Ph.D Thesis, Agric, Bot. Dept., Fac. Agric., Cairo University 286 p.

Tang W, Ronald JN, Outhavong V.  2004. Exogenously added polyamines recover browining tissues into normal callus cultures and improve plant regeneration in pine. Physiology Plantarum 122, 386-395.

Tian J, Wang L, Yang Y, Sun J, Guo S. 2012. Exogenous spermidine alleviates the oxidative damage in cucumber seedlings subjected to high temperature. Journal of American Society for Horticulture Science 137, 11-19.

Torrigiani P, Naria A, Bregoli, Ziosi V, Scaramagli S, Ciriaci T, Rasori A, Biondi S, Costa G. 2004. Pre-harvest polyamine and aminoethoxy vinyl glycine (AVG) applications modulate fruit ripening in Stark Red Gold nectarines (Prunus persica L. Batsch). Postharvest Biology and Technology 33, 293–308. http://dx.doi.10.1016/j.postharvbio.2004.03.008

Valero D, Martinez-Romero D, Serrano M, Riquelme F. 1998. Influence of postharvest treatment with putrescine and calcium on endogenous polyamines, firmness, and abscisic acid in lemon (Citrus limon L. Burm cv. Verna). Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 46, 2102−2109.

Velikova V, Yordanov I, Edreva A.  2000. Oxidative stress and some antioxidant systems in acid rain – treated bean plants: protective role of exogenous polyamines. Plant Science 151, 59-66.

Walters DR. 2003. Polyamines and Plant Disease. Photochemistry 64, 97-107.

Wang CY, Conway WS, Abbott JA, Kramer GF, Sams CE. 1993. Postharvest infiltration of polyamines and calcium influences ethylene production and texture changes in ‘Golden Delicious’ apples. Journal of American Society for Horticulture Science 118, 801−806.

Wang S, Song C, Li L, Zhang Y, Wang SP, Song CB, Li LC, Zhang YM. 1996. Physiological function of polyamines during blossoming and fruit setting in apple. Acta Horticulturae 23, 319–325.

Wang SY, Faust M. 1994. Changes of polyamine content during dormancy in flower buds of `Anna’ apple. Journal of American Society for Horticulture Science 119, 70-73.

Ward JM, Pei ZM, Schroeder JI. 1995. Roles of ion channels in initiation of signal transduction in higher plants. Plant Cell 7, 833-844.

Wei T, Newton JRJ, Outhavong V. 2004. Exogenously added polyamines recover browning tissues into normal callus cultures and improve plant regeneration in pine. Physiology Plantarum 122, 386-395.

Weinstein LH, Kaur-Sawhney R, Rajam MV, Wettlaufer SH, Galston AW. 1986. Cadmium-induced accumulation of putrescine in oat and bean leaves. Plant Physiology 82, 641–645.

Williams RR. 1966. The effective pollination period for some apple and pear varieties. Annual Report Long Ashton Agriculture Horticulture Research Station 136-138.

Wu QS, Zou YN, He XH. 2010. Exogenous putrescine, not spermine or spermidine, enhances root mycorrhizal development and plant growth of trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 12, 576–580.

Xiao-Ming, Zhang PZY, wen XP, Ban Y., Moriguchi T.  2007. Polyamines, all purpose players in response to environmental stress in plants. Plant stress 1, 173-188.

Yahia EM, Contreras-Padilla M, Gonzalez-Aguilar G. 2001. Ascorbic acid content in relation to ascorbic acid oxidase activity and polyamine contents in tomato and bell pepper fruits during development, maturation and senescence. Lebnsm.-Wiss.U.-Tecnology 34, 452-457.

Yelenosky G. 1985. Cold hardiness in citrus. Horticulture Reviews 7, 201-238.

Young ND, Galston AW. 1983. Putrescine and acid stress. Plant Physiology 71, 767-771.​10.​1104/​pp.​71.​4.​767

Zhang W, Jiang B, Li W, Song H, Yu Y, Chen J. Polyamines enhance chilling tolerance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) through modulating antioxidative system. Scientia Horticulturae. 122, 200-208.

Zhao H, Yang H. 2008. Exogenous polyamines alleviate the lipid peroxidation induced by cadmium chloride stress in Malus hupehensis Rehd. Scientia  Horticulturae. 116, 442-447 http://dx.doi.10.1016/j.scienta.2008.02.017