Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Assessment of clove oil and Benzocaine Anaesthesia on Haematological and Histopathological profile of Haludaria fasciata

Research Paper | April 1, 2017

| Download 64

Baiju A. Padiyoor, F. G. Benno Pereira, V. Jayaprakas

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.10( 4), 27-37, April 2017


JBES 2017 [Generate Certificate]


Transportation of live fish is a stressful procedure. Present study assesses the optimal concentration and the degree of effectiveness of clove oil and benzocaine as anaesthetics separately for stress reduced transportation of Haludaria fasciata. Study contributes the knowledge on some aspects of stress research include the detection of histological and haematological alteration as a biomarkers for evaluating degree of pollution or toxic effect with the environment of an organism. The effects anaesthetics revealed at some stages (10 min and 24 hr) of experiment. Histology of gills and liver; and haematological parameters included the erythrocyte count (RBC), leukocyte count (Leuko,TC), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrit (PCV – Packed Cell Volume) as well as mean erythrocyte volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were assessed for determine the effect of clove oil and banzocaine on H. fasciatus and compared with nonanaesthetised control group. Both the anaesthetics do not cause to irreversible damage in the test fishes. The effects of benzocaine on fish were comparatively higher than clove oil treatments. The degree of alteration may due to the defensive response with additives in external environment. The obtained result shows that the optimal dose of clove oil (50 µl) and benzocaine (30 µl) anaesthesia are effective, safe and recommended as suitable anaesthetics for the transportation of H. fasciatus.


Copyright © 2017
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Assessment of clove oil and Benzocaine Anaesthesia on Haematological and Histopathological profile of Haludaria fasciata

Adamek Z, Fasic K, Paul K, Lamasic M. 1993. The effect of 2-phenoxyethanol narcosis on blood of young carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Veterinary Archives 63, 245-250.

Aliakbar Y, Hadideh Narges J. 2015. Determination of MS222 Anesthetic Dose and Its Effect on Liver and Kidney Tissues of Barbus grypus. 2nd Int’l Conference on Advances in Environment, Agriculture and Medical Sciences (ICAEAM’15), June 11-12, Antalya (Turkey).

Anver Celik E. 2004. Blood chemistry (electrolytes, li­poprotein and enzymes) values of black scorpion fish (Scorpaena porcus 1758) in the Dardanelles, Turkey Journal of Biological  Sciences 4, 716–719. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2004.716.719

Arzu U, Atamanalp M. 2010. The effects of natural (clove oil) and synthetical (2-Phenoxyethanol) anaesthesia substances on hematology parameters of Rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) and Browntrout (Salmo trutta fario). Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 9(14), 1925-1933. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/javaa.2010.1925.1933

Atamanalp M, Yanik T, Haliloglu HI, Aras MS. 2002. Alterations in the hematological parameters of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, exposed to cypermethrin. Israeli Journal of Aquaculture – Bamidgeh 54(3), 99-103.

Atamanalp M, Yanik T. 2003. Alterations in Hematological Parameters of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Exposed to Mancozeb, Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Science 27, 1213-1217.

Atkinson J, Judd FW. 1987. Comparative haematology of Lepomis microlophus  and Cichlosoma cyanogutatum. Copeia 12, 230-237.

Blaxhall PC, Daisley KW. 1973. Routine Haematological Methods for Use with Fish Blood. Journal of Fish Biology 5, 771-781. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.10958649.1973.tb04510.x

Bolasina SN. 2006. Cortisol and hematological response in Brazilian codling, Urophycis brasiliensis (Pisces, Phycidae) subjected to anesthetic treatment. Aquaculture International 14, 569–575. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10499-006-9055-0.

Das BK, Mukherjee SC. 2003. Toxicity of cypermethrin in Labeo rohita fingerlings: Biochemical, enzymatic and haematological consequences. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology and Pharmacology 134, 109-121.

Ezzat AA, Shabana MB, Farghaly AM. 1974. Studies on the blood characteristics of Tilapia zilli (Gervais) I. Blood cells. Journal of Fish Biology 6, 1-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.10958649.1974.tb04516.x.

Favaretto ALV, Sawaya P, Petenusci SO, Lopes RA. 1978. Hematologia do Cascudo plecostomus regani. I., Serie vermelha. Biologica 4: 12-17.

Georgieva E, Stoyanova S, Velcheva I, Yancheva V. 2014. Histopathological alterations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) gills caused by thiamethoxam. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 57(6), 991-996. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-8913201402582.

Gomulka P, Wlasow T, Velı´sˇek J, Svobodova´ Z, Chmielinska E. 2008. Effects of eugenol and MS-222 anaesthesia on siberian sturgeon acipenser baerii Brandt. Acta Veterinaria Brno 77, 447–453. https://doi.org/10.2754/avb200877030447

Hasiloglu, Atamanalp. 2002. Demirdoven baraj golu (Erzurum) tatlisu kefali (Leuciscus cephalus) populasyonu hematolojik parameterlerinin belirlenmesi. OMU Zir, Fak, Der 17, 34-38.

Hicks B. 1989. Anaesthetics: sweet dreams for fragile fish. Canadian Aquaculture 89, 29-31.

Hoseini SM, Ghelichpour M. 2011. Efficacy of clove solution on blood sampling and hematological study in Beluga, Huso huso (L.). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 38, 493-498. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-011-9529-5

Hoseini SM, Hoseini SA, Jafar-Nodeh A. 2011. Serum biochemical characteristics of Beluga, Huso huso (L.), in response to blood sampling after clove powder solution exposure. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 37, 567–572. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-010-9458-8

Ingersoll CG, Sanchez DA, Meyer JS, Gulley DD, Tietge JE. 1990. Epidermal response to pH, aluminum and calcium exposure in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) fry. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 47, 1616-1622.

Iwama G, Nakanishi T. 1996. The fish immune system. London; Academic Press, 380 p.

Iwama GK, McGeer JC, Pawluk MP. 1989. The effects of five fish anaesthetics on acid-base balance, hematocrit, cortisol and adrenaline in rainbow trout. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67, 2065-2073.

Khoshnood Z, Khodabandeh S, Mosafer S, Khoshnood R. 2010. Effects of Cortisol on Gill Chloride Cells in Persian Sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, Fry. Yakhteh 11(4), 424-431.

Kocabatmaz M, Ekingen G. 1984. Standardization of haematological methods and taking blood from various fish species. Journal of Nature Sciences 2, 149-159.

Kristan J, Stara A, Turek J, Policar T, Velisek J. 2012. Comparison of the effects of four anaesthetics on hae­matological and blood biochemical profiles in pike­perch (Sander lucioperca L.). Neuroendocrinology Letter 33(Suppl. 3), 66–71.

Meyer TR, Hendricks JD. 1985. Histopathology. In: Rand G.M., Petrocelli S.R. (Eds.): Fundamentals of Aquatic Toxicology. Methods and Applications. Hemisphere Publishing Corp, Washington, DC. 283 P.

Mughal AL, Iqbal MJ, Shakoori AR. 1993. Toxicity of short term exposure of sublethal doses of a synthetic pyrethroid, fenvalerate, on the Chinese grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Proceeding of the Seminar Aquaculture Development in Pakistan, 49-74.

Osman  AGM, Khaled Y, Abuel-Fadl, Werner Kloas. 2012.  In situ evaluation of the genotoxic potential of the river Nile: II. Detection of DNA strand-breakage and apoptosis in Oreochromis niloticus niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Mutation Research/Genetic toxicology and Environmental Mutagensis 747, 14–2 P. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2012.02.013

Pages T, Gomez E, Suner O, Viscor G, Tort L. 1995. Effects of daily management stress on haematology and blood rheology of the gilthead seabream. Journal of Fish Biology 46,775-786.

Pirhonen J, Schreck CB. 2002. Effects of anesthesia with MS-222, clove oil and CO2 on feed intake and plasma cortisol in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 222, 189-201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(02)00624-5

Poleksic V, Mitrovic-tutundizic V. 1994. Fish gills monitor of sublethal and chronic effect of pollution. In Sublethal and Chronic Effects of Pollutants on Fresh Water Fish, Muller, R. & Lloyd, R. (Eds.). United Nations: Fishing News Books 339–352.

Pramod PK, Ramachandran A, Sajeevan TP, Thampy S, Pai SS. 2010. Comparative efficacy of MS-222 and benzocaine as anaesthetics under simulated transport conditions of a tropical ornamental fish Puntius filamentosus (Valenciennes). Aquaculture Research 41, 309-314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2009.02333.x

Quentel C, Obach A. 1992. The cellular composition of the blood and haematopoietic organs of turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. Journal of Fish Biology 41, 709-716. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.10958649.1992.tb02700.x

Randi AS, Monserrat JM, Rodriguez EM, Romano EL. 1996. Histopathological effects of cadmium on the gills of the freshwater fish, Macropsobrycon uruguayanae Eigenmann (Pisces, Atherinidae). Journal of Fish Diseases 19, 311-322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2761.1996.d01-.x.

Reddy PM, Bashamohideen M. 1989. Fenvalerate and cypermethrin induced changes in the haematological parameters of Cyprinus carpio. Acta Hydrochimica Hydrobiologica 17, 101-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aheh.19890170116.

Sandnes K. Lie Ø, Waagbø R. 1988. Normal ranges of some blood chemistry parameters in adult farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Journal of Fish Biology 32(1), 129–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.10958649.1988.tb05341.x

Santhakumar M, Balaji M, Ramudu K. 1999. Effect of sublethal concentrations of monocrotophos on erythropoietic activity and certain hematological parameters of fish Anabas testudineus (bloch). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 63, 379-384.

Satake T, Nuti-Sobrinho A, Paula-Lopes OV, Lopes RA, Dos Santos HSL. 1986. Haematological study of brazilian fish. III. Blood parameters in armored catfish Hypostomus paulinus İherıng 1905 (Pisces, Loricariidae). Ars Vet 2, 179-183.

Schalm OW, Jain NC, Carrol EJ. 1975.  Veterinary Haematology. 3rd Edn., Lea and Febiger Publication, Philadelphia, 807-807 P.

Schmidt H, Bernet D, Wahli T, Meier W, Burkhardt-Holm P. 1999. Active biomonitoring with brown trout and rainbow trout in diluted sewage plant effluents. Journal of Fish Biology 54, 585–596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.10958649.1999.tb00637.x

Sindhu MC, Ramachandran A. 2013. Acute toxicity and optimal dose of clove oil as anaesthetic for blue hill trout Barilius bakeri (Day). Fishery Technology 50, 280-283.

Summerfield RC, Smith LS. 1990. Anesthesia, surgery and related tecniques. In: Schreck CB, Moyle PB, Eds. Methods in Fish Biology. Bethesda. American Fisheries Society 213-272.

Torres FIP, Moura EG, Nascimento CCA, Jr. Contaifer, Ramos CF, Pimenta MA, Torres EB. 1986. Parametros bioquimicos e hematologicos de cascudos (Hypostomus punctatus). Ciencia Cultura 38, 825-830.

Van Heerden D, Vosloo A, Nikinmaa M. 2004. Effects of short-term copper exposure on gill structure, methallothionein and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) levels in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquatic Toxicology 69(3), 271-280.

Van Vuren JHJ, Hattingh J. 1978. A seasonal study of the haematology of wild freshwater fish. Journal of Fish Biology13, 305-313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2004.06.002

Velisek J, Stara A, Li ZH, Silovska S, Turek J. 2011. Comparison of the effects of four anaesthetics on blood biochemical profiles and oxidative stress biomarkers in rainbow trout. Aquaculture 310, 369–375. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2010.11.010

Velisek J, Svobodova Z, Piackova V, 2007. Effects of phenoxyethanol anaesthesia on haematological profile of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhychus mykiss). Acta Veterinaria Brono 76, 487- 492. https://doi.org/10.2754/avb200776030487

Velisek J, Svobodova Z, Piackova V, Groch L, Nepejchalova L. 2005a. Effects of clove oil anaesthesia on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Veterinární medicína 50, 269-275.

Velisek J, Svobodova Z, Piackova V. 2005b. Effects of clove oil anaesthesia on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Acta Veterinaria Brono 74, 139-146. https://doi.org/10.2754/avb200574010139.

Velíšek J, Svobodová Z. 2004a. Anaesthesia of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) with 2-phenoxyethanol: Acute toxicity and effects on biochemical blood profile. Acta Veterinaria Brono 73, 247-252. http://dx.doi.org/10.2754/avb200473020247.

Velíšek J, Svobodová Z. 2004b: Anaesthesia of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with 2-phenoxyethanol: acute toxicity and effects on biochemical blood profile. Acta Veterinaria Brono 73, 378-384. https://doi.org/10.2754/avb200473030379.

Velíšek J, Wlasow T, Gomulka P, Svobodová Z, Novotný L, Ziomek A. 2006. Effects of clove oil anaesthesia on European Catfish catfi sh (Silurus glanis L.). Acta Veterinaria Brono  75, 99-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.2754/avb200675010099.

Weinert NC, Julieta V, Ádson C, Rozyanne RA, Aldo CO, Cláudio RSM, Mere ES, 2015. Hematology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) subjected to anesthesia and anticoagulation protocols. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, Londrina 36(6), 4237-4250. http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/16790359.2015v36n6Supl2p4237.

Xavier Ramesh M, Patterson Edward JK, Ayyakkannu K. 1994. Experimental culture of Chicoreus virgineus (Roding, 1798). Phuket Marine Biological Center Special Publication. 13, 99-102.

Yamawaki K, Hashimoto W, Fujii K, Koyama J, Ikeda Y, Ozaki H. 1986. Hemochemical changes in carp exposed to low cadmium Concentrations. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 52, 459-465.

Yildiz M, Kayim M, Akin S. 2013. The anesthetic effects of clove oil and 2-phenoxyethanol on Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at different concentrations and temperatures, Iranian Journal of Fisheries Science 12(4), 947-961.