J. Bio. Env. Sci.14(2), 53-62, February 2019
This study assessed the mangrove species in Santa Cruz, Davao del Sur, Philippines. Six sample plots were established and results of the assessment yielded 17 different species of mangroves in the area with one categorized as Vulnerable (Avicennia rumphiana). Abundance curve estimated uneven distribution of species. Diversity indices yielded dominance (0.159) and evenness (0.535) values that are relatively lower compared to values from other municipalities in the Davao region. Shannon index value of 2.2 was concluded to be higher than other mangrove assessment studies which suggest higher diversity in the area. Investigation of the mangrove community structure concluded that Sonneratia alba (importance percentage of 24%) is a keystone species of the mangrove forest and that it is the most acclimated to the environment of Santa Cruz. Assessment of mangrove diversity is crucial to restoration efforts that address the problems of deforestation brought about by man-made disturbances.
Abino A, Castillo JA, Lee YJ. 2014. Assessment of species diversity, biomass and carbon sequestration potential of a natural mangrove stand in Samar, the Philippines. Forest Science and Technology 10(1), 2-8.
Brooks TM, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca GAB, Rylands AB, Konstant WR, Flick P, Pilgrim J, Oldfield, Magin G, Hilton-Taylor C. 2002. Habitat loss and extinction in the hotspots of biodiversity. Conservation Biology 16(4), 909-923.
Brown WH, Fischer FA. 1918. Philippine Mangrove Swamps. Bureau of Printing, Manila p. 132.
Cañizares LP, Seronay RA. 2016. Diversity and species composition of mangroves in Barangay Imelda, Dinagat Island, Philippines. AACL Bioflux 9(3), 518-526.
Cardinale BJ, Duffy JE, Gonzalez A, Hooper DU, Perrings C, Venail P, Narwani A, Mace GM, Tilman D, Wardle DA, Kinzig AP, Daily GC, Loreau M, Grace JB., Larigauderie A, Srivastava DS, Naeem S. 2012. Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity. Nature 486, 59-67.
Carlos C, Delfino RJ, Juanico DE, David L, Lasco R. 2016. Vegetation resistance and regeneration potential of Rhizophora, Sonneratia and Avicennia in the Typhoon Haiyan-affected mangroves in the Philippines: implications on rehabilitation process. Climate Disaster and Development Journal 1(1), 1-8.
Dangan-Galon F, Dolorosa R, Sespene J, Mendoza N. 2016. Diversity and structural complexity of mangrove forest along Puerto Princesa Bay, Palawan Island, Philippines. Journal of Marine and Island Cultures 5,118-125.
English S, Wilkinson C, Baker V. 1997. Survey manual for tropical marine resources. Australian Institute of Marine Science pp. 119-196.
Fonseca CR, Ganade G. 2001. Species functional redundancy, random extinctions and the stability of ecosystems. Journal of Ecology 89, 118-125.
Food and Agriculture Organization. 1994. Mangrove Forest Management Guidelines 117, 78-80.
Garcia K, Malabrigo P, Gevaña D. 2014. Philippines’ mangrove ecosystem: status, threats and conservation, in: Mangrove Ecosystems of Asia. Status, Challenges and Management Strategies. pp. 82-94.
Gauthier S, Bernier P, Burton PJ, Edwards J, Isaac K, Isabel N, Jayen K, Le Goff H, Nelson EA. 2014. Climate change vulnerability and adaptation in the managed Canadian boreal forest. Environmental Reviews 22(3), 256-285.
Hammer O, Harper DAT, Ryan PD. 2001. PAST: Paleontological statistics software. Palaeontologia Electronica 4(1), 9.
Heip CHR, Herman PMJ, Soetaert K. 1998. Indices of diversity and evenness. Oceanis 24(4), 61-87.
International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). 2017. Avicennia rumphiana [WWW Document]. The IUCN List of Threatened Species. URL http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/ 178809/0 (accessed 5.29.18).
Jumawan J, Martinez MP, Navarro JAM, Ibrahim C, Guili P, Diez AG, Minguito MJ, Velaso DG, Santos RS, Dialane I. 2015. Correlating mangrove diversity and soil composition in a rehabilitated coastline of Hagonoy, Davao del Sur, Philippines. AAB Bioflux 7(1), 36-43.
Kathiresan K, Bingham BL. 2001. Biology of mangroves and mangrove ecosystems. Advances in Marine Biology 40, 81-251.
Kathiresan K, Salmo III SG, Fernando ES, Peras JR, Sukardjo S, Miyagi T, Ellison J, Koedam NE, Wang Y, Primavera J, Jin Eon O, Wan-Hong Yong, Ngoc Nam V. 2010. Sonneratia alba. [WWW Document] The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010. http://www. iucnredlist. org/details/178804/0
Long JB, Giri C. 2011. Mapping the Philippines’ mangrove forest using landsat imagery. Sensors 11, 2972-2981.
Marchese C. 2015. Biodiversity hotspots: a shortcut for a more complicated concept. Global Evolution and Conservation 3, 297-309.
Margules CR, Pressey RL. 2000. Systematic conservation planning. Nature 405, 243-253.
Myers N. 1988. Threatened biotas: “hot spots” in tropical forests. Environmentalist 8, 187-208.
Nagelkerken I, Blaber S, Bouillon S, Green P, Haywood M, Kirton LG, Meynecke JO, Pawlik J, Penrose HM, Sasekumar A, Somerfield PJ. 2008. The habitat function of mangroves for terrestrial and marina fauna: a review. Aquatic Botany 89(2), 155-185.
Netto SP, Amaral MK, Coraiola M. 2015. A new index for assessing the value of importance of species – VIS. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencas 87(4), 2265-2279.
Pacyao JPR, Macadog HO. 2018. Secondary productivity of the Philippine National Aquasilviculture Program (PNAP): Mangrove rehabilitation area in Brgy. Bagumbayan, Malalag, Davao Del Sur, Philippines. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research 3(3), 38-41.
Pototan B, Capin N, Tinoy MR, Novero A. 2017. Diversity of mangroves species in three municipalites of Davao del Norte, Philippines. AACL Bioflux 10(6), 1569-1580.
Primavera JH, Dianala RDB. 2009. Field guide to Philippine mangroves. Makati, Philippines pp. 4-36.
Primavera JH, Sadaba RB, Lebata MJHL, Altamirano JP. 2004. Handbook of mangroves in the Philippines. SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department. Iloilo.
Primavera JH. 1995. Mangroves and brackishwater pond culture in the Philippines. Hydrobiologia 295, 303-309.
Primavera JH. 2000. Development and conservation of the Philippine mangroves: institutional issues. Ecology 35, 91-106.
Rönnback P. 1999. The ecological basis for economic value of seafood production supported by mangrove ecosystems. Ecological Economics 29, 235-252.
Samson MS, Rollon RN. 2008. Growth performance of planted mangroves in the Philippines: revisiting forest management strategies. Ambio 37(4), 234-240.
Verberk W. 2011. Explaining general patterns in species abundance and distributions. Nature Education Knowledge 3(10), 38.