Assessment of seasonal variations in surface water quality of Laguna Lake Stations using factor analysis

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Research Paper 14/02/2023
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Assessment of seasonal variations in surface water quality of Laguna Lake Stations using factor analysis

Jonecis A. Dayap, Wilfred V. Rios, Joey S. Estorosos, John Michael B. Genterolizo, Ricky B. Villeta, Mark Ian C. Andres
J. Bio. Env. Sci.22( 2), 63-73, February 2023.
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Laguna Lake is one of the lakes that largely contribute to the socio-economic and environmental needs of the Philippines as it supports fisheries and aquaculture, recreation, power generation, and industries. In this study, the two-year (2018-2019) water quality monitoring data from Laguna Lake Development Authority was subjected to multivariate factor analysis. Initially, the dataset was divided into two categories, representing the dry and wet seasons. Factor analysis was then performed in order to identify major contributing factors that significantly influence the water quality of the lake during dry and wet seasons. Factor analysis for the two data sets (dry and wet) was able to identify three factors, namely, nutrient pollutants, influential water quality and nitrification. Results showed that the nutrient factor constitutes the biggest impact with a variance of 23.6% on the lake’s water quality during dry season, following influential water quality (22.2%) and nitrification (20.3%). However the nutrient factor contributes the least impact with a variance of 15.1% on the quality of water during wet season while the influential water quality contributes the highest amount of variance (29.4%). Significant changes on BOD and pH were also observed between seasons. Hence, it can be recommended to have strategies for regular monitoring and maintenance of water quality in Laguna Lake. In addition, environmental programs, and policies concerning water, air, and land protection by stakeholders must be realized to ensure sustainability, and conservation of all forms of life particularly aquatic life species.


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