Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | February 14, 2023

| Download 20

Assessment of seasonal variations in surface water quality of Laguna Lake Stations using factor analysis

Jonecis A. Dayap, Wilfred V. Rios, Joey S. Estorosos, John Michael B. Genterolizo, Ricky B. Villeta, Mark Ian C. Andres

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.22(2), 63-73, February 2023


JBES 2023 [Generate Certificate]


Laguna Lake is one of the lakes that largely contribute to the socio-economic and environmental needs of the Philippines as it supports fisheries and aquaculture, recreation, power generation, and industries. In this study, the two-year (2018-2019) water quality monitoring data from Laguna Lake Development Authority was subjected to multivariate factor analysis. Initially, the dataset was divided into two categories, representing the dry and wet seasons. Factor analysis was then performed in order to identify major contributing factors that significantly influence the water quality of the lake during dry and wet seasons. Factor analysis for the two data sets (dry and wet) was able to identify three factors, namely, nutrient pollutants, influential water quality and nitrification. Results showed that the nutrient factor constitutes the biggest impact with a variance of 23.6% on the lake’s water quality during dry season, following influential water quality (22.2%) and nitrification (20.3%). However the nutrient factor contributes the least impact with a variance of 15.1% on the quality of water during wet season while the influential water quality contributes the highest amount of variance (29.4%). Significant changes on BOD and pH were also observed between seasons. Hence, it can be recommended to have strategies for regular monitoring and maintenance of water quality in Laguna Lake. In addition, environmental programs, and policies concerning water, air, and land protection by stakeholders must be realized to ensure sustainability, and conservation of all forms of life particularly aquatic life species.


Copyright © 2023
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Assessment of seasonal variations in surface water quality of Laguna Lake Stations using factor analysis

Ahipathy MV, Puttaiah ET. 2006. Ecological characteristics of vrishabhavathy River in Bangalore (India). Environmental geology 49, 1217-1222.

Ancog RC, Briones ND, Florece LM, Alcantara AJ, Alaira SA. 2009. Expansion of Environmental Users’ Fee System To Households For Enhanced Water Pollution Control in Laguna Lake, Philippines. Journal of Environmental Science and Management 11. Retrieved 4 10, 2022, from https://journals. uplb.edu.ph/index.php/jesam/article/view/79/78

Aquatic Life Criteria – Ammonia | US EPA. 2019. February 19. Retrieved from US EPA: www.epa.gov/wqc/aquatic-life-criteria-ammonia

Barril CR, Tumlos ET. 2002. Water quality trends and trophic state assessment of Laguna Lake, Philippines. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management 5, 115-126. Retrieved 4 10, 2022, from https:// eurekamag.com/research/011/648/011648455.php

Barril CR, Madamba LS, Tumlos ET. 1994. Water quality of Laguna Lake: status and trends. Retrieved 4 10, 2022, from http://kimika.philippinechem.org /index.php/kimika/article/view/173

Baxter RM. 1977. Environmental effects of dams and impoundments. Annual review of ecology and systematics 255-283.

Bhateria R, Jain D. 2016. Water quality assessment of lake water: a review. Sustainable Water Resources Management 2, 161-173.

Boquet Y. 2017. Conclusion: Towards Sustainable Development in the Philippines? Retrieved 4 10, 2022,fromhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007  /978-3-319-51926-5_23

Bronfenbrenner U, Morris P. 2007. The Bioecological Model of Human Development. Retrieved 4 10, 2022, from https://onlinelibrary.wiley. com/doi/abs/10.1002/9780470147658.chpsy0114

Cadenas J. 1989. Biochemistry of oxygen toxicity. Ann. Rev. Biochem 58, 79-110.

Coffey R, Paul MJ, Stamp J, Hamilton A, Johnson T. 2019. A review of water quality responses to air temperature and precipitation changes 2: Nutrients, algal blooms, sediment, pathogens. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association 55, 844-868.

communications-and-publishing. 2016. April 28. Nitrogen in Lakes Connected to Groundwater | U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved from Usgs.gov: https://www.usgs.gov/news/state-news-release/ nitrogen -lakes-connected-groundwater

Concepcion M. 1976. Children of the lakeshore : studies on the value of children in selected Laguna Lake towns. Retrieved 4 10, 2022, from https://idl-bnc-idrc.dspacedirect.org/handle/10625/359

Cruz R, Pillas M, Castillo H, Hernandez E. 2012. Pagsanjan-Lumban catchment, Philippines: Summary of biophysical characteristics of the catchment, background to site selection and instrumentation. Agricultural Water Management 106, 3-7. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016 /j.agwat.2011.08.003

Curtis TP, Mara DD, Silva SA. 1992. Influence of pH, oxygen, and humic substances on ability of sunlight to damage fecal coliforms in waste stabilization pond water. Applied and environmental microbiology 58, 1335-1343.

Davis JC. 1975. Minimal dissolved oxygen requirements of aquatic life with emphasis on Canadian species: a review. Journal of the Fisheries Board of Canada 32, 2295-2332.

Deeuyper J, Van de vorst A, Lopez M, Piette J, Merville MP, Calberg-bacq M. 1984. Photodynamic induction of single-strand breaks in OXRFI DNA by Promazines. In S. M. Bors W. (Ed.), In Oxygen Radicals in Chemistry and Biochemistry.

Elhatip H, Hınıs M, Gülbahar N. 2007. Evaluation of the water quality at Tahtali dam watershed in Izmir-Turkey by means of statistical methodology. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 22, 391-400.

Fed, McGarrymg, Tongkasame C. 1971. Water reclamation and algae harvesting. J. Wat. Pollut. Control 5, 824-835.

Fumasoli A, Bürgmann H, Weissbrodt DG, Wells GF, Beck K, Mohn J, Udert KM. 2017. Growth of Nitrosococcus-related ammonia oxidizing bacteria coincides with extremely low pH values in wastewater with high ammonia content. Environmental Science & Technology 51, 6857-6866.

Gadhia M, Surana R, Ansari E. 2012. Seasonal variations in physico-chemical characterstics of Tapi estuary in Hazira industrial area. Our nature 10, 249-257.

García-Ferrer I, Camacho A, Armengol X, Miracle MR, Vicente E. 2003. Seasonal and spatial heterogeneity in the water chemistry of two sewage-affected saline shallow lakes from central Spain. Hydrobiologia 101-110. Retrieved 4 10, 2022, from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/b:hydr.0000008593.32525.1d

Historical Sea Surface Temperature for Laguna Beach. 2013. Retrieved 4 10, 2022, from surf-forecast.com: http://www.surf-forecast.com/ breaks /Laguna-Beach/seatemp

Hölscher K, Frantzeskaki N. 2021. Perspectives on urban transformation research: transformations in, of, and by cities. Urban Transformations 3, 1-14.

Houri A, El Jeblawi SW. 2007. Water quality assessment of Lebanese coastal rivers during dry season and pollution load into the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of water and Health 5, 615-623.

Huang F, Wang X, Lou L, Zhou Z, Wu J. 2010. Spatial variation and source apportionment of water pollution in Qiantang River (China) using statistical techniques. Water Res 44, 1562-1572.

Islam MS, Uddin MK, Tareq SM, Shammi M, Kamal AK, Sugano T, Kuramitz H. 2015. Alteration of water pollution level with the seasonal changes in mean daily discharge in three main rivers around Dhaka City, Bangladesh. Environments 2, 280-294.

Jalbuena RL, Blanco AC, Manuel A, Ana RR, Santos JA. 2019. Bio optical modelling of laguna lake using bomber tool and wasi-derived inverted parameters. Isprs International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences 277-282. Retrieved 4 10, 2022, from https://noa.gwlb.de/receive/cop_mods_00041135

Kada R. 2014. Environmental Risks to Food and Health Security in the Laguna Watershed. Retrieved 4 10, 2022, from https://econpapers.repec.org /repec:sag:seaadn:2014:249

Kalkan S, Altuğ G. 2020. The composition of cultivable bacteria, bacterial pollution, and environmental variables of the coastal areas: an example from the Southeastern Black Sea, Turkey. Environmental monitoring and assessment 192, 1-23.

Klose K, Cooper SD, Leydecker AD, Kreitler J. 2012. Relationships among catchment land use and concentrations of nutrients, algae, and dissolved oxygen in a southern California river. Freshwater Science 31, 908-927.

Ksoll WB, Ishii S, Sadowsky MJ, Hicks RE. 2007. Presence and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in epilithic periphyton communities of Lake Superior. Applied and environmental microbiology 73, 3771-3778. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.0

Lambert, Stephen, Davy, Anthony. 2010. 4Water quality as a threat to aquatic plants: Discriminating between the effects of nitrate, phosphate, boron and heavy metals on charophytes. The New phytologist 189, 1051-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03543.x.

LLDA. 2022. Laguna Lake Development Authority. Retrieved from Laguna Lake Development Authority: https://llda.gov.ph/

Low Dissolved Oxygen in Water Causes, Impact on Aquatic Life – An Overview. 2009, February 24. Retrieved from Pca.state.mn.us: www. pca.state.mn.us/sites/default/files/wq-iw3

Babilonia DR, MMG, Rebancos C. 2015. Food Safety Study of Duck Eggs Produced Along Laguna Lake Areas, Philippines. Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences 1-5. Retrieved 4 10, 2022, from https://longdom.org/open-access/food-safety-study-of-duck-eggs-produced-along-laguna-lake-areas-philippines-2155-9600-s3-005.pdf

Manuel J. 2014. Nutrient pollution: a persistent threat to waterways. Erratum in: Environ Health Perspect., 122(11), A304-9. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.122-A304. 2014; 25360879 122(12):A323. PMID:; PMC4216153., PMCID:

Masuda T. 2019. Interactive Governance for Sustainable Resource Use and Environmental Management: A Case Study of Yaman ng Lawa Initiative in the Laguna Lake Watershed, Philippines. Retrieved 4 10, 2022, from https://link.springer.com /chapter/10.1007/978-981-13-2399-7_7

Miguel M. 2019, January 11. Clean Water Program. Retrieved from Denr.gov.ph: https://www.denr. gov.ph/index.php/priority-programs/clean-water-pro

Misra O, Chaturvedi D. 2016. Fate of dissolved oxygen and survival of fish population in aquatic ecosystem with nutrient loading: a model. Model. Earth Syst. Environ 2, 112. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/s40808-016-0168-9

Munoz H, Orozco S, Vera A, Suarez J, Garcia E, Neria M, Jiménez J. 2015. Relationship between Dissolved Oxygen, Rainfall and Temperature: Zahuapan River, Tlaxcala, Mexico. Tecnologia Y Ciencias Del 6, 59-74.

Nathanson J. 2004. Basic Environmental Technology: Water Supply. New Delhi: Printice-Hall of India.

Omer NH. 2019. Water quality parameters. In J. K. Summers, Water quality-science, assessments and policy (p. 18).

Oswald W, Golueke C. 1968. Large scale production of algae. In Single Cell Protein. (E. b. R., Ed.) Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Paerl HW, Fulton RS, Moisander PH, Dyble J. 2001. Harmful freshwater algal blooms, with an emphasis on cyanobacteria. The Scientific World Journal 1, 76-113.

PAGASA. 2022. PAGASA. Retrieved from PAGASA: https://www.pagasa.dost.gov.ph

Paradise found (again). Travellers vote Palawan archipelago in Philippines ‘Best Island in the World’ for the second time. (n.d.). Retrieved 4 10, 2022, from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/travel/travel_news/article-3697736/Exotic-Philippine-island-Palawan-Best-Island-World-SECOND-year-running.html

Parhad N, Rao NV. 1974. Effect of pH on survival of E. coli. J. Wat. Pollut. Control Fed 34, 149-161.

Pariset E. 1977. Laguna Lake Water Resources Development. Journal of the Environmental Engineering Division 103(6), 1021-1038. Retrieved 4 10, 2022, from https://cedb.asce.org/cedbsearch /record.jsp?dockey=0007778

Pearson HW, Mara DD, Mills SW, Smallman DJ. 1987. Physico-chemical parameters influencing faecal bacterial survival in waste stabilization ponds. Water science and technology 19, 145-152.

Pescod MB. 1992. Wastewater treatment and use in agriculture-FAO irrigation and drainage paper 4. Rome.: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Poté J, Goldscheider N, Haller L, Zopfi J, Khajehnouri F, Wildi W. 2009. Origin and spatial-temporal distribution of faecal bacteria in a bay of Lake Geneva, Switzerland. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 154, 337-348. Retrieved 4 4, 2022, from https://link.springer.com /article/10.1007/s10661-008-0401-8

Ratzke C, Barrere J, Gore J. 2020. Strength of species interactions determines biodiversity and stability in microbial communities. Nature ecology & evolution 4, 376-383.

Sakthivadivela M, Nirmalac A, Sakthivadivelb J, Mukhiland RR, Tennysone S. 2020. Physicochemical and Biological Parameters of Water At Industrial Sites of metropolitan city of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Sampat A, Hicks A, Ruiz-Mercado G, Zavala Vnd. Valuing Economic Impact Reductions of Nutrient Pollution from Livestock. Waste. Resour. Conserv.

SantosBorja A, Nepomuceno DN. 2006. Laguna Lake: Institutional development and change for lake basin management. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management 11, 257-269.

Schröder T, Melles M, Hoff Jv, Reicherter K. 2016. Sediments of the salt lake Laguna Salada (Southern Spain) & their application for climate studies. Retrieved 4 10, 2022, from https://publications.rwth-aachen.de/record/681298

Seo, Lee, Kunwoo, Kim, Taewoo. 2019. Relationship between Coliform Bacteria and Water Quality Factors at Weir Stations in the Nakdong River, South Korea. Water, 11. 1171. 10.3390/ w11061171.

Sepers AB. 1981. Diversity of ammonifying. Hydrobiologia 83, 343-350.

Sevilla JB, Lee CH, Lee BY. 2010. Assessment of spatial variations in surface water quality of Kyeongan Stream, South Korea using multi-variate statistical techniques. Dordrecht: Springer.

Shaheed R, Mohtar WH, El-Shafie A. 2017. Ensuring water security by utilizing roof-harvested rainwater and lake water treated with a low-cost integrated adsorption-filtration system. Water Science and Engineering 10, 115-124.

Sim J. 2003. Critical success factors in data mining projects. Texas: University of North Texas.

Snedecor, Cochran. 1989. Statistical Methods, 8th Ed. Iowa: Iowa State University Press.

Šolić M, Krstulović N. 1992. Separate and combined effects of solar radiation, temperature, salinity, and pH on the survival of faecal coliforms in seawater. Marine Pollution Bulletin 24, 411-416.

Soliman M, Eldyasti A. 2018. Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB): opportunities and applications—a review. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology 17, 285-321.

Tchobanoglous G, Burton F, Stensel H. 2003. Metcalf & Eddy Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse. (4th ed. ed.). New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Limited.

Thivya C, Chidambaram S, Thilagavathi R, Prasanna MV, Adithya VS, Nepolian M. 2015. A multivariate statistical approach to identify the spatio-temporal variation of geochemical process in a hard rock aquifer. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 187, 1-19.

Twardochleb LA, Olden JD 2016. Human development modifies the functional composition of lake littoral invertebrate communities. Hydrobiologia 775, 167-184.

USEPA. 1997. Manual on Monitoring Water Quality. United States Geological Survey (USGS).

Verduzo Garibay M, Fernández del Castillo A, de Anda J, Senés-Guerrero C, Gradilla-Hernández MS. 2021. Structure and activity of microbial communities in response to environmental, operational, and design factors in constructed wetlands. Internaltional Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 1-26.

Wallace TA, Ganf GG, Brookes JD. 2013. Rapid utilisation of storm water-derived dissolved organic carbon and its fractions in an urban lake. Marine and Freshwater Research 65, 370-377.

Wang X, Zhang L, Cai Y. 2018. Heavy metal pollution in reservoirs in the hilly area of southern China:

Distribution, source apportionment, health risk assessment. Science of the Total Environment 634, 158-169.

Yu S, Shang J, Zhao J, Guo H. 2003. Factor analysis and dynamics of water quality of the Songhua River, Northeast China. In Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 144, 159-169. Northeast China.