Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | January 1, 2015

| Download 1

Assessment of socio-economic factors and plant agrobiodiversity (Case study: Kashan city, Iran)

Sajad Hosseinzadeh Monfared, Mojtaba Akhavan Armaki

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.6(1), 259-274, January 2015


JBES 2015 [Generate Certificate]


Conservation of agrobiodiversity is essential to achieve sustainable agricultural systems. A study was conducted in Kashan city in Iran in 2013 to assess the effects of socio-economic factors on agrobiodiversity Six villages were chosen so that they provided a uniform distribution over the region. Data were gathered using semi-structured questionnaires and explored using stepwise linear regression, principle components analysis and cluster analysis. Species richness, Shannon-Wiener index and Sorenson Similarity index were calculated as criteria of agrobiodiversity status. Results showed that the lowest species richness (10) and Shannon-Wiener index (2.48) were observed in Shadian and Sensen villages, respectively. Nashalj village had the best status of agrobiodiversity regarding both studied diversity indices. Results also revealed that farmers’ age, years of farming experience, the percentage of income from non-agriculture sector, level of education and the number of land pieces were responsible for 28% of variation in data. Also the results showed that the percentage of income from agronomy sector, the number of land pieces, the percentage of income from livestock sector, years of farming experience and the percentage of income from non-agriculture sector had significant effects on Shannon-Wiener index. Overall, household income was as important factor effect on agrobiodiversity in studied villages.


Copyright © 2015
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Assessment of socio-economic factors and plant agrobiodiversity (Case study: Kashan city, Iran)

Albuquerque UP, Andrade LHC, Caballero J. 2005. Structure and floristics of homegardens in northeastern Brazil. Journal of Arid Environments 62, 491-506.

Anon. 2001. Convention on Biological Diversity. Secretariat for the Convention on Biological Diversity. UN Environment Program. Available online at: www.biodiv.org.

Banwa TP. 2011. Diversity and endemism in mossy/montane forests of Central Cordillera Region, Northern Philippines. Biodiversity 12, 4, 212-222.

Baudry J, et al. 2000. A holistic landscape ecological study of the interactions between farming activities and ecological patterns in Brittany, France. Landscape Urban Planning 50: 119–128.

Benin S, et al. 2003. The economic determinants of cereal crop diversity on farms in the Ethiopian highlands. Paper presented at Proceedings of 25th International Conference of Agricultural Economists, August 16-22, in Durban, South Africa.

Benin S, et al. 2004. The economic determinants of cereal crop diversity on farms in the Ethiopian highlands. Agricultural Economics 31, 197–208.

Blaikie PM. 1971. Spatial organization of agriculture in some north Indian villages: part II. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 53, 15-30.

Blanckaert I, et al. 2004. Floristic composition, plant use and management practices in homegardens of San Rafael coxcatlan, Valley of Techuacan-Cuicatlan, Mexico. Journal of Arid Environment, 57, 39-62.

Burianek V. 1996. The Biodiversity and Forest Management in the Czech Republic: Assessment of Biodiversity for Improved Forest Planning. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publisher.

Chloupek O, Hrstkovaa P, Schweigert P. 2004. Yield and its stability, crop diversity, adaptability and response to climate change, weather and fertilisation over 75 years in the Czech Republic in comparison to some European countries. Field Crops Research 85, 167–190. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/S0378-4290(03)00162-X

Coomes TO, Ban N. 2004. Cultivated plant species diversity in homegardens of an Amazonian peasant village in northeastern Peru. Economic Botany 53, 420-434. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1663/0013-0001

Cutforth L, et al. 2001. Factors affecting farmers’ crop diversity decisions: An integrated approach. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 16, 168–176.

Dahl K, Nabhan GP, 1992. Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources; Grassroots Efforts in North America. Nairobi: ACTS Press.

Di Falco S, et al. 2010. Agrobiodiversity, farm profits and land fragmentation: Evidence from Bulgaria. Land Use Policy 27, 763–771. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.3168/jds.2010-3377

Dufour A, et al. 2006. Plant species richness and environmental heterogeneity in a mountain landscape effect of variability and spatial configuration. Ecography 29, 573-584. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1111/j.0906-7590.2006.04605.x

Enright NJ, Miller BP, Akhtar R. 2005. Desert vegetation and vegetation-environment relationships in Kirthar National Park, Sindh, Pakistan. Journal of Arid Environments 61, 397-418.

Farjadian AM, et al. 2010. Investigating medicinal plant biodiversity indices. Paper presented at International Conference of Conservation of Biodiversity and Traditional Knowledge, March 1-2, in Kerman, Iran.

Gauchan D, et al. 2005. Socioeconomic and agroecological determinants of conserving diversity on- farm: The case of rice genetic resources in Nepal. Nepal Agriculture Research Journal 6, 89-98.

Gliessman SR, Engles E, Jrieger R. 1998. Agroecology: Ecological Processes in Sustainable Agriculture. Chelsea, MI: Ann Arbor Press.

Gozdowski D, Roszkowska-Madra B, Madry W. 2008. Crop diversity at the gmina level and its causes in the Podlasie district of Poland. Communications in Biometry and Crop Science 3, 72–79.http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1080/09064710. 2010. 537677

Groombridge B, Jenkins M. 2002. World Atlas of Biodiversity. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.

Hammer K, Heller J, Engles J. 2001. Monographs on underutilized and neglected crops. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 48, 3-5.

Hashemi Shadegan F. 2009. Evaluation of plant agrobiodiversity: A case study of Basht district – Gachsaran city. MSc Thesis., Shahid Beheshti University. (in Persian with English Abstract)

Jackson LE, Pascual U, Hodgkin T. 2007. Utilizing and conserving agrobiodiversity in agricultural landscapes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 121, 196–210.

Khoshbakht K, Hammer K. 2008. How many plant species are cultivated? Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 55, 925–928.

Khoshbakht K, Hammer K, Amini S. 2006. Interdisciplinary analysis of homegardens in Savadkouh/Iran: plant uses and socioeconomic aspects. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 4, 277-282.

Koocheki A. 2005. A new look at organic farming in Iran. Paper presented at The First Iranian Agroecology Conference, February 14–15, Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, in Tehran, Iran. (in Persian)

Koocheki A, Nassiri Mahallati M, Nadjafi F. 2004. The agrobiodiversity of medicinal and aromatic plants in Iran. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 2 (2), 208-214. (in Persian with English Abstract).

Koocheki A, et al. 2008. Agrobiodiversity of field crops: A case study for Iran. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 32, 1: 95-122. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1080/10440040802121445

Kristensen SP, Thenail C, Kristensen L. 2001. Farmers’ involvement in landscape activities: an analysis of the relationship between farm location, farm characteristics and landscape changes in two study areas in Jutland, Denmark. Journal of Environmental Management 61, 301–318.

Kunhikannan C, et al. 2011. Diversity of woody species in the Medicinal Plant Conservation Area (MPCA) of Silent Valley National Park, Kerala. Biodiversity 12, 97-107. http://dx.doi.org/ 14888386.2011.602930

Meul M, Nevens F, Reheul D. 2005. Genetic diversity of agricultural crops in Flanders over the last five decades. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 25, 491–495. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1051/agro: 2005049

MEA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment). 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington DC, USA.

Peters C. 1988. Valuation in an amazonian rainforest. Nature 339, 655-656.

Peyre A, et al. 2006. Homegarden dynamics in Kerala, India. In Tropical Homegardens: Time-tested Example of Sustainable Agroforestry, ed. B.M. Kumarand and P.K.R. Nair, 87-103. Dordrecht: Springer.

Pimentel D, et al. 1992. Conserving biological diversity in agricultural/forestry systems. Bioscience 42, 354-362.

Power GA. 2010. Ecosystem services and agriculture: tradeoffs and synergies (Review). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 365. 2959–2971.  http://dx.doi.org/  10.1098/rstb. 2010.0143

Rababa’h M, Al-Qudah H. 2004. Socio-economic factors determining on-farm agricultural biodiversity in Ajlun Governorate. Agricultural Science 31, 373 – 379.

Rajabzadeh Kashani H. 2012. Exploring the agrobiodiversity in agroecosystems of Kashan city. M.Sc. Thesis., Shahid Beheshti University. (in Persian with English Abstract).

Rana RB, et al. 2007. Influence of socio-economic and cultural factors in rice varietal diversity management on-farm in Nepal. Agriculture and Human Values 4, 461–472. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s10460-007-9082-0

Razavi SA, Rahmani R, Sattarian R. 2009. The investigation of effective factors on biodiversity using MLR (Case study; Vaz Research Forest). Wood and Forest Science and Technology 16, 1: 33-50.

Reardon T, Barrett CB. 2000. Agroindustrialization, globalization, and international development—an overview of issues, patterns, and determinants. Agricultural Economics 23, 195–205. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1574-0862.2000.tb00 272.x

Redford K, Agrawal A. 2006. Poverty, Development and Biodiversity Conservation: Shooting in the Dark? WCS Working papers No. 26. Bronx, New York, 56p.

SAS Institute. 2000. The SAS System for Windows, Release 8.0. Statistical Analysis Systems Institute, Carry, NC, USA.

Schmitzberger I, et al. 2005. How farming styles influence biodiversity maintenance in Austrian agricultural landscapes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 108, 274–290. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.agee.2005.02.009

Scott LC, et al. 1998. Modulation of diversity by grazing and moving in native tallgrass prairie. Journal of Science 280, 745-747.

Shaltout K H, et al. 2002. Phytosociology and size structure of Nitrararia restusa along the Egyptian Red Sea coast. Journal of Arid Environments 53, 331-345.

Smale, E., et al. 2003. Determinants of spatial diversity in modern wheat: examples from Australia and China. Agricultural Economics 28, 13–26.

Small E, Catling PM. 2008. Global biodiversity – The source of new crops. Biodiversity 9, 3-7. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1080/14888386.2008.9712872

Stoate C, et al. 2009. Ecological impacts of early 21st century agricultural change in Europe: a review. Journal of Environmental Management 91, 22–46. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.07.005

Stocking M. 1999. Agrodiversity: A positive means of addressing land degradation and rural livelihoods. Paper presented at Message for Perth Conference of International Geographical Union’s Commission on Land Degradation and Desertification, September 20-28, in University of Western Australia, Australia.

Stocking M. 2001. Agrobiodiversity: A positive means of addressing land degradation and sustainable rural livelihoods. In Land Degradation, ed. A.J. Conacher, 11-16. Kluwer, Dodrecht: Academic Publishers.

Sunwar S, et al. 2006. Home gardens in western Nepal: opportunities and challenges for on-farm management of agrobiodiversity. Biodiversity Conservation 15, 4211-4238. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s10531-005-3576-0

Ten Brink P. 2009. TEEB—The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity for National and International Policy Makers— Summary: Responding to the Value of Nature. Wesseling, Germany.

Thaman RR. 2008. Pacific Island agrobiodiversity and ethnobiodiversity: A foundation for sustainable Pacific I0sland life. Biodiversity 9, 102-110. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1080/14888386.2008.9712895

Thrupp LA. 2004. The importance of biodiversity in agroecosystems. Journal of Crop Improvement (12), 315-337.

Turpie JK. 2003. The existence value of biodiversity in South Africa: how interest, experience, knowledge, income and perceived level of threat influence local willingness to pay. Ecological Economics 46, 199-216.

Upreti BR, Upreti YG. 2002. Factors leading to agro-biodiversity loss in developing countries: the case of Nepal. Biodiversity and Conservation 11, 1607–1621.

Wilson GA. 1997. Factors influencing farmer participation in the environmentally sensitive areas scheme. Journal of Environmental Management 50, 67–93.

Winters P, Cavatassi R, Lipper L. 2006. Sowing the seeds of social relations: The Role of Social Capital in Crop Diversity. ESA Working Paper No. 06-16. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background