Assessment of the impact of effluent disposal in river ravi at lahore on the water quality for irrigation and recreational purposes at upstream of Balloki Barrage, Pakistan

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/09/2014
Views (155) Download (1)
current_issue_feature_image
publication_file

Assessment of the impact of effluent disposal in river ravi at lahore on the water quality for irrigation and recreational purposes at upstream of Balloki Barrage, Pakistan

Asim Mehmood, Sana Akhtar, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry, Samita Arub, Samia Saif, Almas Hamid
J. Bio. Env. Sci.5( 3), 241-254, September 2014.
Certificate: JBES 2014 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

This paper focuses on the effluent impact on River Ravi received by it from the Lahore city at a number of locations upstream of Balloki Barrage located at 60 km downstream. The Qadirabad-Balloki link canal carries about 18,000 cusecs freshwater from the Chenab River into River Ravi at 5 km upstream of Balloki barrage, thus diluting it. River Ravi water quality was determined by sampling over a year including the periods of maximum, average and minimum river flows. Sampling was carried out at the six major drains near their disposal point and in River Ravi at Lahore Bridge (upstream boundary and control for this research), at Balloki barrage in main river channel and in Balloki-Sulemanki offtake link canal. The samples were analyzed for EC, SAR, RSC, TDS, anions (SO4, Cl, CO3-2), cations (Ca+, Mg+, Na), and heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni) for irrigation purposes and DO, pH, EC,COD, BOD, TDS,SO4 and heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni) for recreational purposes. Samples coordinates were taken by Global Positioning System. The results were compared with FAO and WWF guidelines for Pakistan for irrigational use and with WWF guidelines for recreational use of water. Consequently, river water quality at the Balloki Barrage was acceptable during average and high flows and was deviating the standards during low flows.The dilution does not work during low flows and requires alternate solution to make the water quality acceptable. Also the drains being used for bathing and swimming for recreation is unsafe for such type of activities.

VIEWS 2

Ahmed A, Henna I, Chaudhry GM. Water Resources and conservation Strategy of Pakistan “PSDE23.” Pakistan Institute of Development Economics. http://www.pide.org.pk/psde23/pdf/Ayaz%20Ahmed.pdf (accessed December 31, 2013).

Ahmed K, Ali W. 2000. Evaluation of Ravi River water quality. Journal of drainage and water management. Drainage Research Centre (PCRWR), Tandojam, Pakistan 4 (2), 5-17.

Akhtar S, Nawaz M. 2012. Impact of water quality on aquatic life in River Ravi, Pakistan. Nature Environment and Pollution Technology 11(2), 219-224.

Ali H. 2003. Lahore’s troubled water. The News, January 19, 2.

Ayesha A. 2001. Water quality assessment of River Ravi around Lahore City. Pakistan Engineering Congress, 71st Annual Session Proceedings, 636-648.

Bhutta MN, Ramzan M, Hafesez CA. 2002. Ground water quality and availability in Pakistan, Proceedings of seminar on strategies to address the present and future water quality issues, March 6-7. Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources, Islamabad, Pakistan, 3-7.

Briscoe J, Qamar U. 2008. Pakistan’s water economy running dry, World Bank. Oxford University Press, 155.

CEWRE. 1997. Proceedings – Water for the 21st century: Demand, Supply, Development and Socio-Environmental Issues, Center of Excellence in Water Resources Engineering, Lahore, 4-11.

Ejaz N, Nisar HH, Razzaq AG. 2011. Water quality assessment of effluent receiving streams in Pakistan: A case study Of Ravi River. Mehran University Research Journal of engineering & technology 230, 383-396.

FAO. 1985. Water quality for agriculture, irrigation and drainage, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. 29 (1), 5-90.

Ibrahim M, Hussain N. 1988. Irrigation quality of Pakistan Rivers water. Journal of agricultural research 26, 149-154.

Kumar NC, Krishna RT. 2011. Effect of industrial effluents and wastes on physico-chemical parameters of river Ravi. Advances in applied science research 2 (5), 207-211.

Nazir A. 1993. Water Resources of Pakistan. Miraj uddin Press, Lahore, 3-42.

NESPAK. 1998. Subregional water supply on private sector involvement in the development and management of water supply and sanitation system, Pakistan Country Report 58, 6-37.

PCRWR. 1985. Project Proposal: Pollution problems in the water supply system of Islamabad under short term research studies program (STRESS). Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources. Ministry of Science & Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan, 3-16.

Pearce GR, Ramzan CM, Ghulam S. 1998. A simple methodology for water quality monitoring, HR Wallingford in collaboration with International Waterlogging and Salinity Research Institute, Lahore, 1-29.

Qayyum MA, Sabir MF. 1975. Criteria for irrigation water quality. Proceedings of the international congress on water logging and salinity, Lahore, Pakistan, 283-292.

Sami F. 2001. Water quality monitoring of Hudiara Drain, an independent consultancy for data analysis and water quality management plan, 1-19.

MoE. 2005. State of the Environment Report (Draft, 2005) Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan.

Van der Hoek W, Konradsen F, Jehangir WR. 1999. Domestic use of irrigation water: Health hazard or opportunity. Water Resources Development 15(1/2), 107-119.

WWF Pakistan. 2007. National surface water classification criteria and irrigation water quality guidelines for Pakistan, proposed by WWF Pakistan through consultation with stakeholders, 1-9.