Assessment of the impact of effluent disposal in river ravi at lahore on the water quality for irrigation and recreational purposes at upstream of Balloki Barrage, Pakistan

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Research Paper 01/09/2014
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Assessment of the impact of effluent disposal in river ravi at lahore on the water quality for irrigation and recreational purposes at upstream of Balloki Barrage, Pakistan

Asim Mehmood, Sana Akhtar, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry, Samita Arub, Samia Saif, Almas Hamid
J. Bio. Env. Sci.5( 3), 241-254, September 2014.
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This paper focuses on the effluent impact on River Ravi received by it from the Lahore city at a number of locations upstream of Balloki Barrage located at 60 km downstream. The Qadirabad-Balloki link canal carries about 18,000 cusecs freshwater from the Chenab River into River Ravi at 5 km upstream of Balloki barrage, thus diluting it. River Ravi water quality was determined by sampling over a year including the periods of maximum, average and minimum river flows. Sampling was carried out at the six major drains near their disposal point and in River Ravi at Lahore Bridge (upstream boundary and control for this research), at Balloki barrage in main river channel and in Balloki-Sulemanki offtake link canal. The samples were analyzed for EC, SAR, RSC, TDS, anions (SO4, Cl, CO3-2), cations (Ca+, Mg+, Na), and heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni) for irrigation purposes and DO, pH, EC,COD, BOD, TDS,SO4 and heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni) for recreational purposes. Samples coordinates were taken by Global Positioning System. The results were compared with FAO and WWF guidelines for Pakistan for irrigational use and with WWF guidelines for recreational use of water. Consequently, river water quality at the Balloki Barrage was acceptable during average and high flows and was deviating the standards during low flows.The dilution does not work during low flows and requires alternate solution to make the water quality acceptable. Also the drains being used for bathing and swimming for recreation is unsafe for such type of activities.


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