Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | May 1, 2015

| Download 3

Assessment of the vegetation cover of northern high mountains in Jordan

Dawud MH Al-Eisawi , Sawsan AS Oran

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.6(5), 93-106, May 2015


JBES 2015 [Generate Certificate]


The vegetation cover of the northern mountains of Jordan was investigated and surveyed. Line transects sampling method as well as walking through methods have been applied in this study. A total area of 15×80 km was studied and divided into grid system, and thus the selected grids have been used for the line transect sampling. The study showed that the natural forest of Aleppo pine, evergreen oak forest, deciduous oak forest, degraded forest and manmade Aleppo pine forest areas are suffering from man interference and continuous encroachment for the uses of agriculture, urbanization, grazing, fire and querying. The available plant species under forest were collected and herbarium specimens are prepared and deposited. Analysis parameters such as density (D), relative density (RD), frequency (F), relative frequency (RF), abundance (A), relative abundance (RA) and the importance value (IV) are studied. The values of the parameters are recorded for all species, but since the number of collected species is more than 500, then these parameters are listed for the highest 20 species to show clear image about the most dominant and the most abundant and other parameters. From the quantitative ecological analysis using various parameters, the species recoded as having the highest values such as Quercus coccifera, Sarcopoterium spinosum, Asphodelus aestivus, Eryngium creticum, Ononis natrix and others confirm that the study area falls within a Mediterranean biogeographic zone in Jordan. Based on the obtained results, it is highly recommended thus to exert maximum efforts to conserve such limited forest cover, since Jordan, is classified as a country with dry to semidry ecosystem. In addition some of the rare and endemic recorded species occur only under forest cover, particularly the orchid species.


Copyright © 2015
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Assessment of the vegetation cover of northern high mountains in Jordan

Abdel-Khalik K, El-Sheikh M, El-Aidarous A. 2013. Floristic diversity and vegetation analysis of Wadi Al-Noman, Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Turk J Bot 37, 894-907.

Alatar A, El-Sheikh MA, Thomas J. 2012. Vegetation analysis of Wadi Al-Jufair, a hyper-arid region in Najd, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 19, 357-368.

Al-Bakri1 JT, Al-Eisawi DMH, Damhoureyeh S, Oran S. 2011. GIS-Based Analysis of Spatial Distribution of Medicinal and Herbal Plants in Arid and Semi-Arid Zones in the North-west of Jordan. Annals of Arid Zone 50(2), 99-115.

AL-Eisawi DMH, Hatough A. 1987. Ecological Analysis of the Vegetation of Shaumari Reserve in Jordan. Dirasat XIV(12), 81-94.

AL-Eisawi DMH. 1983. Studies on the flora of Jordan. II. On the flora of Wadi Araba (Araba Valley). Candollea 38(1), 359-364.

AL-Eisawi DMH. 1985. Vegetation of Jordan. In Hadidi, A. (editor). 1985. Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan. II. Ministry of Archaeology. Amman. pp. 45-57.

AL-Eisawi DMH. 1986. The Orchids of Jordan. Kew Bulletin 41(2), 359-377.

AL-Eisawi DMH. 1998. Field Guide to Wild Flowers of Jordan and Neighbouring Countries. Jordan Press Foundation “Al Rai”. Amman. Pp. 296 with 488 coloured photographs.

Al-Eisawi DMH. 1994. Forests and Man Impact in Jordan. Proceedings of the International Symposium “Man and Mountains, 94”. Italy 20-24 June, 1994. pp. 385–398.

Al-Eisawi DMH. 1996. Vegetation of Jordan. Published by UNESCO-Cairo-Office. Regional OFFICE FOR Science and Technology for the Arab States. Cairo. pp. 284.

Al-Eisawi DMH. 2004. Water scarcity in relation to food security and sustainable use of biodiversity in Jordan. Proceedings of the, International FORUM on Food Security under Water Scarcity in the Middle East: Problems and Solutions COMO (Italy) November, 24-27.

Al-Eisawi DMH. 2014. Vegetation community analysis in Mujib Biosphere Reserve, Jordan. Jordan Journal of Natural History 1, 35-58.

Al-Eisawi DMH. 2015. Medicinal plants in Mujib Biosphere Reserve, Jordan. International Journal of Pharmacy & Therapeutics 6(1), 25-32.

Al-Eisawi DMH, Al-Rziaza S. 2015. Flora of Holly Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Accepted in the: International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 7(3), 173-189.

Barbour M, Burk J, Pitts W. 1987. Terrestrial Plant Ecology. 2ed. edition, Benjamin/Cummings, USA.

Bergmeier E. 2002. The vegetation of the high mountains of Crete- a revision and multivariate analysis. Phytocoenologia 2, 205-249.

Chen J, Schob C, Zhou Z, Gong Q, Li X, Yang Y, LI Z, Sun H. 2015. Cushion plants can have a positive effect on diversity at high elevations in the Himalayan Hengduan Mountains. Journal of Vegetation Science doi: 10.1111/jvs 12275.

Chiu CA, Lee MF, Tzeng HY, Liao MCA. 2014. Concise scheme of vegetation boundry terms in subtropical high mountains. African Journal of Agricultural research 9 (20), 1560-1570.

Çolak AH, Rotherham ID. 2006. A review of the forest vegetation of Turkey: its status past and present and its future conservation. Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 106B(3), 343-454.

Edwards M, AL-Eisawi DMH, Millington A. 1996. The use of ERS Atsr-2 Data for monitoring rangeland vegetation in the Eastern Badia, Jordan. University of Leicester. Submitted to the Remote Sensing Society Annual Conference.

El-Ghanim WM, Hassan LM, Galal TM, Badr A. 2010. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia. Saudi J. Biol Sci 17(2), 119-128.

Eswani N, Abd Kudus K, Mazre M, Awang-Noor AG. 2010. Medicinal plant diversity and vegetation analysis of logged over Hill forest of Tekai Tembeling forest reserve, Jerantut, Pahang. Journal of Agricultural Science 2(3), 189-210.

Guiot J, Torre F, Cheddadi R, Peyron O, Tarsov P, Jolly D, Kaplan JE. 1999. The climate of the Mediterranea basin and of Eurasia of the last glacial maximum as reconstructed by inverse vegetation modeling and pollen data. Ecologia Mediterranea 25(2), 193-204.

Higazy  AK,  El-Demerdash  MA,      Hosni  HA. 1998. Vegetation, species diversity and floristic relations along an altitudinal gradient in south west Saudi Arabia. Journal of Arid Environment 38, 3-13.

Holzapfel C, Schmidt W. 1990. Roadsides vegetation along transect in the Judean desert. Israel Jornal of Botany 39, 263-270.

Karmel Y, Kadmon R. 1999. Effects of grazing and topography on long-term vegetation changes in a Mediterranean ecosystem in Israel. Plant Ecology 145, 243-245.

Kasabligil B. 1956. Report to the Government of The Hashenite Kingdom of Jordan, on an ecological survey of the vegetation in relation to forestry and grazing. Rome. UNESCO/FAO.

Krebs CJ. 1956. Ecological Methodology. Harper and Collins, New York. NY.

Kumagai K. 2008. Analysis of vegetation distribution in urbanareas spatial analysis approach on a regional scale, 2008. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences XXXVII (B8) Beijinj, 101-105.

Long G. 1957. The Bioclimatology and Vegetation of East Jordan. Rome, UNISCO/FAO.

Madon O, Gachet S, Barbero M. 1999. Influence of study scale on the characteristics of plants community organization in a Mediterranea grassland (Mont Ventoux, France). Ecologia Mediterranea 25(2), 205-214.

Naydenova V, Dimitrov P, Jelev G, Roumenina E. 2010. Analysis of the dynamics of vegetation parameters LAI, EVI and FPAR for forest areas using MODIS data. Remote Sensing for Science, Education, and Natural and Cultural Heritage, EARSeL, 357-363.

Oran SA, Al-Eisawi DMH. 2014. Medicinal Plants in the high mountains of northern Jordan. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 6(6), 436-443.

Oran SA, Al-Eisawi MMH. 2015. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal plants in the northern high mountains of Jordan. Submitted.

Oran SA. 1994. Flora of Shoubak Mountain, Socioeconomic and Man Impact. Proceeding of The International Symposium “Man and Mountains 94”. Primo Convergo Internazionale Per La Protezione E Lo Sviluppo Dell’ Ambiente Montano (BS), Italy 20-24 Guigno 1994. PP. 739-751.

Oran SA. 2014. A list of flowering wild plants in Tafila province. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 6(1), 24-40.

Parolly G. 2004. The high mountain vegetation of Turkey – a state of art report, including a first conspectus of the major syntax. Turk J Bot 28, 39-63.

Poore MED, Robertson JC. 1964. An approach to Rapid Description and mapping of Biological Habits. Sub-commission on Conservation of Terrestrial Biological Communities of the International Biological Program, Jordan. Rome. UNESCO/FAO.

Raven P, Evert R, Erichhorn S. 1986. Biology of Plants. Edt. 4. Worth Publishers, Inc. New York. pp. 775.

Roberts N, Eastwood WJ, Kuzucuoğlu C, Fiorentino G, Caracutta V. 2011. Climate, vegetation and cultural change in the eastern Mediterranean during the mid-Holocene environmental transition. The Holocene 21(1), 147-162.

Schmidt H, Gitelson A. 2010. Temporal and spatial vegetation cover in Israeli transition zone: AVHRR-based assessment of rainfall impact. International Journal of Remote Sensing 21(5), 997-1010.

Shaltout KH, El-Keblawy AA, Mousa MT. 2008. Vegetation analysis of some desert rangelands in United Arab Emirates. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 3(3), 149- 155.

Taimeh AY. 1995. Land resources in Jordan: Policies Toward Better Uses, Preservations and Development. FAO, Mimeographed Report, Amman, Jordan.

Tian ZP, Zhuang LI, LU S, LI WH. 2013. Characteristics of the vegetation and the vertical distribution patterns on the northern slope of the USUN Mountains, XINJIANG. Pak. J. Bot. 45 (4), 1123-1134.

Torres JA, Garcia-Funentes A, Salazar C, Cano E, Valle F. 1999. Charaterisation of Pinus halepensis Mill. Pine in southern Iberian Peninsula. Ecologia Mediterranea 25(2), 135-146.

Ürlich D. 2002. Rock communities and succulent vegetation in northern Yemen (SW Arabia) – ecological, phytological and evolutionary aspects. Phytoecologia 32(2), 205-249.

Van Leeuwen WJD, Casady DG, Neary DG, Bautista S, Allosa JA, Carmel Y, Weittenberg DM, Orr BR. 2010. Monitouring post-wildfire vegetation response with remotely sensed time-series data in Spain, USA and Israel. International Journal of Wildland Fire 19, 75-93.

Woolfenden BW, Ababneh L. 2011. Late Holocene vegetation in the Azraq Wetland Reserve, Jordan. Quaternary Research 76, 345–351.

Zagjewski B, Kozlowska A, Krowczynska M, Sobczak M, Wrzesien M. 2005. Mapping high mountain vegetation using hyperspectral data. EARSel_eProceedings 4(1), 70- 78.

Zohary M. 1962. Plant Life of Palestine. Ronald Press Co. New York. pp. 262.

Zohary M. 1973. Geobotanical Foundation of the Middle East. Amsterdam. Sweets and Zeitlinger.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background