Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Assessment of White Yam Tuber Rot Disease and in vitro Management of Aspergillus niger in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Research Paper | October 1, 2021

| Download 19

E.M. Ndifon, A.F. Lum

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.19( 4), 32-40, October 2021

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/19.4.32-40


IJB 2021 [Generate Certificate]


White yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) is an important tuber crop cultivated for consumption and income generation in Nigeria. Its production is severely affected by the rot disease, which causes a reduction in tuber yield. A study was carried out in Abakiliki and Ikwo Local Government Areas of Ebonyi State to assess the level of infection of tubers in the major markets; the pathogenicity of the isolates on tubers in vivo; the effect of aqueous extracts of five plants (leaves of Eucalyptus globulus, Melaleuca cajuputi, Andrographis paniculata and Azadirachta indica, and shoots of Euphorbia hirta) at 50 and 100% concentrations, the synthetic fungicides Mancozeb® and Tandem® (at the half and full recommended rates) for management of Aspergillus niger in vitro. A negative control without the fungicide or plant extract was included. The mean percentage of infection of tubers in the markets was 13.5%. All the pathogens isolated were fungi (Fusarium anthophilum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, A. flavius, Pythium ultimum, Mucor sp., and Penicillum oxalicum). Aspergillus niger had the highest frequency (21.4%). All plant extracts inhibited the growth of A. niger significantly compared to the negative control and the level was higher at 100% concentration than at 50%. The synthetic fungicides gave higher inhibition of the fungus than the plant extracts; the level of inhibition was more with Mancozeb® than with Tandem®. In conclusion, the aqueous extracts of all the plants, especially 100% E. globulus, showed promising activity against A. niger, a major pathogen that causes yam tuber rot disease.


Copyright © 2021
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Assessment of White Yam Tuber Rot Disease and in vitro Management of Aspergillus niger in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Adejo PE. 2017 Post-harvest management practices of yam and farmers’ information needs in the north-central of Nigeria. Journal of Nutraceuticals and Food Science 2(3), 9.

Aji PO, Tunwari BA, Kyugah JT. 2018. Effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Cassia alata on yam rot. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare 8(10), 9-13.

Amusa NA, Adigbite AA; Muhammed S, Baiyewu RA. 2003. Yam diseases and its management in Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 2(12), 497-502. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJB2003.000-1099

Anjorin TS, Nwokocha OV, Sanni AD. 2014. Morphological characteristics and incidence of diseases on white yam (Dioscorea rotundata L. Poir) tubers in Abuja, Nigeria. Nature and Science 12(7), 58–65.

Ekefan EJ, Nwankiti AO, Gwa VI. 2018. Comparative assessment of antimicrobial potency of some selected plant extracts against seed borne pathogens of germinating yam setts. Journal of Plant Pathology and Microbiology 9, 444. http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7471.1000444

Ezeonu CS, Imo C, Agwaranze DI, Iruka A, Joseph A. 2018. Antifungal effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of neem leaves, stem bark and seeds on fungal rot diseases of yam and cocoyam. Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture 5(18). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40538-018-0130-3

FAO. 2015. FAOSTAT. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

Gwa VI, Abdulkadir KH. 2017. Biological control using Trichoderma harzianum against Penicillium purpurogenum, causal agent of white yam tuber (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) rb. Journal of Bioresearch Communications 1, 1-6.

Gwa VI, Akombo RA. 2016. Studies on the antimicrobial potency of five crude plant extracts and chemical fungicide in in vitro control of Aspergillus flavus, causal agent of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) tuber rot. Journal of Plant Sciences and Agricultural Research 1, 1-8.

Gwa VI, Ekefan EJ. 2018. Fungicidal effect of some plant extracts against tuber dry rot of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) caused by Aspergillus niger. International Journal of Horticulture and Agriculture 3(3), 1-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.15226/2572-3154/3/3/00123

Hamzat OTH. 2014. Investigations on the fungi associated with yam (Dioscorea rotundata) tuber rot in south west Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Mycology 6, 117–124.

Iqbal MCM, Meiyalaghan S, Wijesekara KB, Abeyratne KP. 2001. Antifungal activity from water extracts of some common weeds. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 4(7), 843-845. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2001.843.845

Liamngee K, Akomaye MU, Okoro JK. 2015. Efficacy of some botanicals in the control of fungi causing post-harvest rot of yam in Katube market, Obudu, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences 10(6 Ver. II), 33-41.

Lum AF, Ndifon EM, Mbong GA, Chi SJ, Ntsomboh-Ntsefong G. 2019. Antifungal activity of plant extracts for the management of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaiedis in vitro. International Journal of Biosciences 14(6), 1–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/14.6.1-9

Mamkaa DP, Gwa VI. 2018. Effect of Moringa oleifera and Vernonia amygdalina leaf extracts against Aspergillus flavus and Botryodiplodia theobromae causing rot of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) seeds. Applied Science Research Review 5(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.21767/2394-9988.100067.

Nwankiti AO, Arene OB. 1978. Diseases of yam in Nigeria. PANS 24(4), 486-494.

Nwawuisi JU, Nwadili C, Ogbu JU, Mbah OI. 2012. Determination of tuber rot levels and storage fungi associated with dry season yam. International Journal of Applied Agricultural Research 7(2), 137-143.

Nweke FU. 2015. Effect of some plant leaf extracts on mycelia growth and spore germination of Botryodiplodia theobromae causal organism of yam tuber rot. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare 5(8).

Nweke FU, Enujeke EC. 2006. Fungi associated with spoilage of stored and marketed white yam tubers (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) in Umunede, Nigeria. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences 5(1), 11–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjass.v5i1.2274

Ogbo FC, Agu KC. 2015. Evaluation of a new method for testing the pathogenicity of molds to yam tubers. Edorium Journal of Microbiology 1, 9–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.5348/M08-2015-2-OA-2

Okigbo RN, Emeka AN. 2010. Biological control of rot-inducing fungi of water yam (Dioscorea alata) with Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas syringae and Pseudomonas chlororaphis. Journal of Stored Product Research 1, 18-23.

Otegwu TC. 2011. Activities of some antifungal agents against phytopathogenic yam rot fungi spores in Zaria, Nigeria. M.Sc. Thesis. Ahmadu Bello University. Zaria. p 139.

Udemezue JC, Nnabuife ELC. 2017. Challenges of yam (Dioscorea spp.) production by farmers in Awka North Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. British Journal of Research 4, 11. http://dx.doi.org/10.21767/2394-3718.100011