Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Bacterial Etiology and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Diabetic Foot Infections

Research Paper | November 1, 2020

| Download 14

Asad Ullah, Sana Javaid, Naureen Ehsan Ilahi, Haseen Ullah Shah, Ghazala Parveen, Maria Shoukat, Muhammad Sharif, Rahim Shah, Dilbar Shahzad, H. Zaineb Amir, Memoona Rauf, Hina Fatima, Kanwal Batool, Lubna Razaq, Iram Saeed

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.17( 5), 34-40, November 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/17.5.34-40


IJB 2020 [Generate Certificate]


Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalent endocrinopathies associated with several complications. These patients are at greater risk for bacterial infection and also have an increased sensitivity for all kinds of infections. In diabetic patients, soft tissue and bone infection of the lower limbs is the so common cause for hospital admission and sometimes leadsto lower-extremity amputation. This study was designed for isolation and characterization of pathogenic strains from the wounds of diabetic foot ulcer and their antibiogram analysis against commonly used antibiotics, a total of fifty samples were collected from the wounds of diabetic patients admitted in Rehman Medical Institute, Peshawar Hayatabad by using appropriate method. The collected samples were inoculated on different types of culture media through pure culturing technique and Standard procedures of gram staining and biochemical tests were carried out for the identification and characterization of bacterial species. Six various types of antibiotics were tested which include Augmentin, Vancomycin, Erythromycin, Cefixime, fosfomycin and Ciprofloxacin against the isolated bacterial species. Eight bacterial species were isolated, among which four were Gram-negative Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis, Yersinia enterocolitica and Providencia and four were Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus kristeniae, Micrococcus mucilaginosus. Amoung these gram positive species M. kristeniae (32.60%) was the most frequently prevalent species in diabetic foot infection. The only antibiotic that was effective against all isolates was Fosfomycin while all other antibiotics used in the present study were only partly or not effective against the isolated species. Only 38%, 25% and 13% of the species were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin and Cefixime respectively.


Copyright © 2020
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Bacterial Etiology and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Diabetic Foot Infections

Atlas ID. IDF diabetes atlas 8 th edition. 2017 [cited 2019 May 13].

Chaudhry BL, Shukla S. 2014. Bacteriological profile and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern in cases of otitis media. Bulletin of Pharmaceutical and Medical Sciences (BOPAMS), 2(2).

Cho N, Shaw JE, Karuranga S, Huang Y, da Rocha Fernandes JD, Ohlrogge AW, Malanda B. IDF Diabetes Atlas: Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2017 and projections for 2045. Diabetes research and clinical practice. 2018 Apr 1(138), 271-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2018.02.023

Citron DM, Goldstein EJ, Merriam CV, Lipsky, BA, Abramson MA. 2007. Bacteriology of moderate-to-severe diabetic foot infections and in vitro activity of antimicrobial agents. Journal of clinical Microbiology 45(9), 2819-2828. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00551-07

Hamdan RH, Peng TL, Ong BL, Suhana MY, Hamid NH, Afifah MN, Raina MS. Antibiotics resistance of Vibrio spp. isolated from diseased seabass and tilapia in cage culture. http://dx.doi.org/10.14334/Proc.Intsem.LPVT-2016, p 554-560

Laing P. 1998. The development and complications of diabetic foot ulcers. American journal of Surgery, 176 (2A Suppl), 11S-19S. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9610(98)00182-2

Mayfield JA, Reiber GE, Sanders LJ, Janisse D, Pogach LM. Preventive foot care in people with diabetes. Diabetes care. 1998 Dec 1, 21(12), 2161-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.21.12.2161

Miyan Z, Fawwad A, Sabir R, Basit A. 2017. Microbiological pattern of diabetic foot infections at a tertiary care center in a developing country. Age (years) 53, 10-20.

Pataky Z, Assal JP, Conne P, Vuagnat H, Golay A. 2005. Plantar pressure distribution in Type 2 diabetic patients without peripheral neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease. Diabetic medicine, 22(6), 762-767. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2005.01520.x

Pecoraro RE, Reiber GE, Burgess EM. 1990. Pathways to diabetic limb amputation: basis for prevention. Diabetes care 13(5), 513-521. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.13.5.513

Rampal SRL, Devaraj NK, Yoganathan PR, Mahusin MA, Teh SW, Kumar SS. 2019. Distribution and prevalence of microorganisms causing diabetic foot infection in Hospital Serdang and Hospital Ampang for the year 2010 to 2014. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology 17, 256-260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcab.2018.11.019

Ramsamy Y, Muckart DJJ, Han KSS. 2013. Microbiological surveillance and antimicrobial stewardship minimise the need for ultra-broad-spectrum combination therapy for treatment of nosocomial infections in a trauma intensive care unit: Anaudit of an evidence-based empiric antimicrobial policy. South African medical journal 103(6), 371-376. http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/samj.6459

Schintler MV, Traunmüller F, Metzler J, Kreuzwirt G, Spendel S, Mauric O, Popovic M, Scharnagl E, Joukhadar C. High fosfomycin concentrations in bone and peripheral soft tissue in diabetic patients presenting with bacterial foot infection. Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 2009 Sep 1, 64(3), 574-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkp230

WHO. 1999. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications: report of a WHO consultation. Part 1, Diagnosis and classification ofdiabetes mellitus: Geneva: World health organization.

Yazdankhah SP, Sørum H, Larsen HJ, Gogstad G. Rapid method for detection of gram-positive and-negative bacteria in milk from cows with moderate or severe clinical mastitis. Journal of clinical microbiology. 2001 Sep 1, 39(9), 3228-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jcm.39.9.3228-3233.2001

Zubair M, Malik A, Ahmad J. 2010. Clinico-bacteriology and risk factors for thediabetic foot infection with multidrug resistant microorganisms in north India. Bio Med Research international 2(4), 22-34.