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Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish from the Chi River, Maha Sarakham Province, Thailand

Tawatchai Tanee, Arunrat Chaveerach, Chanyaphat Narong, Montree Pimjai, Panida Punsombut, Runglawan Sudmoon

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Int. J. Biosci.3(8), 159-167, August 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/3.8.159-167

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Abstract

Heavy metals are the most significant pollutants in the problem of environmental pollution worldwide. Metals tend to accumulate in water and then move up through the food chain, therefore accumulating in the fish, the main protein source for locals. This research thus aims to study the accumulation of heavy metals in sediment, water, and fish species in the Chi River. The soil sediment and water samples were collected from six points along the Chi River in Muang District, Maha Sarakham Province. Analysis showed that concentrations of heavy metals, including zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and lead (Pb) in soil sediments were 5.377-15.669 mg/kg, 5.220-6.894 mg/kg, 1210.149-1324.430 mg/kg, and 7.547-47.560 mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Fe in the water were 0.11-0.32 mg/L, 0.076-0.086 mg/L, and 1.272-2.644 mg/L, respectively. Pb was not detected in the water samples. Seven fish samples were collected, namely Chitala ornata, Cyclocheilichthys enoplos, Kryptopterus apogon, Morulius chrysophekadion, Mystus gulio, My. ruckioides, and Notopterus notopterus, for analysis of heavy metals accumulation in the different fish organs. The heavy metals detected in the fish, shown in diminishing order, were Fe > Pb > Zn > Cu. The distribution of heavy metals in selected organs analyzed appeared in the order of liver > stomach-intestine > gill > muscle. Fortunately, concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Fe in the muscle did not exceed standard level. However, it should be taken into consideration that concentration of Pb detected in fish were higher than the standard levels. This should be a concern, because lead potentially affects fish consumers.

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Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish from the Chi River, Maha Sarakham Province, Thailand

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