Biochemistry, risk factors and major chronic complications of type 2 diabetes among patients of Southern Punjab, Pakistan

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/06/2019
Views (341) Download (15)

Biochemistry, risk factors and major chronic complications of type 2 diabetes among patients of Southern Punjab, Pakistan

Muhammad Naeem, Maryam Pakiza, Arsalan Ashraf, Hafiz Muhammad Zeshan Safdar, Arslan Rasool, Hafiza Samia Rasool, Muhammad Tjammal Rehman, Tayyeba Razzaq, Ghafoor Ahmad
Int. J. Biosci.14( 6), 432-436, June 2019.
Certificate: IJB 2019 [Generate Certificate]


Nearly, half of the diabetic population in Pakistan not diagnosed properly and approximately half of the affected population in the beginning characterized diabetic patients is seen to comprise the chronic diabetic complications. This study was conducted to estimate the existing status of chronic complications associated with diabetes mellitus. This research was conducted at Department of Diabetes, Jampur located in southern region of Punjab, Pakistan from February 2017 to June 2017. A comprehensive evaluation of medical history and clinical and laboratory tests of blood samples were performed to analyze the dyslipidemia and related complications. A neuropathy disability score normally greater than zero was used to access peripheral neuropathy as standard parameters with range in low, medium and high. An opthalmoscopic performed comprehensive examination of dilated retina. Obesity, low HDL, High LDL and total cholesterol were considerably higher in females. Neuropathy level was higher in patients with short diabetes duration at the same time as other chronic complications were higher in patients with long diabetes duration and with high age group. This research will be useful for administration and control of secondary complications in diabetic patients of Pakistan.


Abougalambou S, Abougalambou A. 2015. Risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy among type 2 diabetes patients at teaching hospital in Malaysia. Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome 9(2), 98-103.

Chatterjee S. Khunti K, Davies MJ. 2010. Type 2 diabetes. Lancet. 389(10085), 2239-2251.

Cho N, Shaw J, Karuranga S, Huang Y. 2018. IDF Diabetes Atlas: global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2017 and projections for 2045. Diabetes Research and clinical practice 138, 271-281.

Herman WH, Zimmet PJ. 2012. Type 2 diabetes: an epidemic requiring global attention and urgent action. Diabetes Care 35(5), 943-944.

Hussain S, Qamar MR, Iqbal MA, Ahmad A. 2013. Risk factors of retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus at a tertiary care hospital, Bahawalpur Pakistan; Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences 29(2), 536.

Miah M, Yousuf M. 2018. Analysis the significant risk factors on type 2 diabetes perspective of Bangladesh; Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 24(5), 111-116.

Ogurtsova K, Fernandes J, Huang Y, Linnenkamp U, Guariguata L. 2017. IDF Diabetes Atlas: Global estimates for the prevalence of diabetes for 2015 and 2040; Diabetes Research and clinical practice 128, 40-50.

Oliveira A, Valente J, Leite I, Schramm J, Azevedo A. 2009. Global burden of disease attributable to diabetes mellitus in Brazil; Artizo 25(6), 1234-1244.