Biocontrol of black pod disease in Côte d’Ivoire through the selection of cocoa tree (Theobroma cacao L.) endophytic bacteria antagonist of Phytophthora spp.

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/03/2022
Views (1035) Download (77)

Biocontrol of black pod disease in Côte d’Ivoire through the selection of cocoa tree (Theobroma cacao L.) endophytic bacteria antagonist of Phytophthora spp.

Ouattara Adama, Coulibaly Klotioloma, Konate Ibrahim, Gogbe Françoise, N’guessan Walet Pierre, Acka Kotaix, Kouame Norbert, Tahi Mathias, Guiraud Brigitte, Assi Maryse, Kone Daouda, N’guessan François, Tidou Abiba Sanogo, Abdelkarim Filali-Maltouf
Int. J. Micro. Myco.14( 3), 1-10, March 2022.
Certificate: IJMM 2022 [Generate Certificate]


This study aimed at selecting cocoa tree endophytic bacteria antagonistic to Phytophthora spp. in view to produce a new biofungicide capable of controlling black pod disease. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from healthy organs (roots, leaves and stems) of young nurseries of two clones NA32 and P7. These isolates were confronted in vitro with two Phytophthora species (Phytophthora palmivora and Phytophthora megakarya). Leaf and detached pod tests were carried out in a four-factor split-plot randomized experimental design. At total, 116 endophytic bacteria were isolated. These bacteria inhibited the radial growth of Phytophthora by 25.3±1.5 to 70.54±2.14%. Four isolates 48P, 60P, 23P and 18N were more effective in in vitro tests. The susceptibility index of the clone NA32 was reduced from 3.0 to 0.97 on leaf discs and from 7.57 to 1.27 on detached pods. These endophytic bacteria induced resistance to clone NA32 and increased the intrinsic resistance of clones PA150 and SCA6. Endophytic bacteria can be used for biocontrol of black pod disease. However, field trials are needed to confirm the stability of these laboratory results.


Acebo-Guerrero Y, Hernandez-Rodrıguez A., Vandeputte O, Miguelez-Sierra Y, Heydrich-Perez M, Ye L., Cornelis P., Bertin P and El Jaziri M. 2015. Characterization of Pseudomonas chlororaphis from Theobroma cacao L. rhizosphere with antagonistic activity against Phytophthora palmivora (Butler). Journal of Applied Microbiology 119, 1112-1126.

Akrofi AY, Terlabie JL, Amoako-Attah I, Asare EK. 2017. Isolation and characterization of bacteria from different cacao progenies and their antagonistic activity against the black pod disease pathogen, Phytophthora palmivora. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 124,143-152.

Albert SLC, Mohd JAK, KHIM PC, CHONG M. H. 2017. Assessing the cocoa genotypes for resistance to black pod using the area under the disease-progress curve (AUDPC). Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science 23, 972-979.

Bowers JH, Tondje PR. 2006. Screening biocontrol candidates for Phytophthora megakarya using the leaf disk test. In: Tondje P. R., Hebbar P. K., Samuels G. J., Bowers J. H., Evans H. C., Holmes A K., Onguene N. A. & Foko J. (Editors). Microbial biocontrol methods for Phytophthora megakarya cacao black pod disease in Africa 183p.

Coulibaly K, Aka RA, Camara B, Kassin E, Kouakou K, Kébé BI, Koffi NK, Tahimg, Walet NP, Guiraud SB, Assi ME, Kone B, N’Guessan KF, Koné D. 2018. Molecular Identification of Phytophthora palmivora in the Cocoa Tree Orchard of Côte d’Ivoire and Assessment of the Quantitative Component of Pathogenicity. Internationale journale of science 7, 7-15.

Deberdt P, Mfegue CV, Tondje PR, Bonmc, Ducamp M, Hurard C, Begoude BAD, Ndoumbe-Nkeng M, Hebbar PK, Cilas C. 2008. Impact of environmental factors, chemical fungicide and biological control on cacao pod production dynamics and black pod disease (Phytophthora megakarya) in Cameroon. Biological Control 4, 149-159.

Gadji AAG, Kouamékg, Coulibaly K, Yapo OB, Aka AR, Brar KS, Tyagi R, Abo K. (2018). Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1-based biopesticide on the pathogenicity of Phytophthora palmivora. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences 12, 456-464.

Gomez KA, Gomez AA. 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. 2nd ed. Chapter 2. New York: John Wiley & Sons 7-83.

Iqbal Z, Ghazanfar MU, Raza W, Ahmad S, Anjum MZ. 2019. Efficacy of bio control agents for management of Phytophthora megasperma causes of collar rot of peas. International Journal of Biosciences 14, 281-285.

Iwaro AD, Thévenin J.-M, Butler DR, Eskes AB. 2005. Usefulness of the detached pod test for assessment of cacao resistance to Phytophthora pod rot. European Journal of Plant Pathology 113, 173-182.

Kébé IB, Mpika J, N’Guessan KF, Hebbar PK, Samuels GS, Ake S. 2009. Isolement et identification de microorganismes indigènes de cacaoyères en Côte d’Ivoire et mise en évidence de leurs effets antagonistes vis-à-vis de Phytophthora palmivora, agent de la pourriture brune des cabosses. Sciences & Nature 6, 71-82.

Konate I, Ouattara A, Coulibaly B, Guei NKR, Amani K, Kouakou IK, Filali-Maltouf A, Koffi M. 2015. Phenotypic Diversity of Associative Bacteria Isolated from Roots and Stems of Cacao (Theorem cacao) Tree in Daloa, Côte d’Ivoire. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 4, 560-570.

Mejia LC, Rojas EI, Maynard Z, Bael SV, Arnold AE, Hebbar P, Samuels GJ, Robbins N, Herre EA. 2008. Endophytic fungi as biocontrol agents of Theobroma cacao pathogens. Biological Control 46, 4-14.

Melnick RL, Suárez C, Bailey BA, Backman PA. 2011. Isolation of endophytic endospore forming bacteria from Theobroma cacao as potential biological control agents of cacao diseases. Biological Control 57, 236-245.

Mpika J, Kebe IB, Druzhinina IS, Komon-Zélazowska M, Kubicek CP, Aké S. 2009. Inhibition de Phytophthora palmivora, agent de pourriture brune des cabosses de cacaoyer en Côte d’Ivoire, par Trichoderma sp. Sciences & Nature 6, 49-62.

Nana LW, Ekounda VT, Mkounga P, Eke P, Nkengfack AE, Nwaga D. 2016. Potentialisation of the biocontrol efficacy of arbuscular mycorrhizas fungi against cocoa black pod rot causing Phytophthora megakarya with natural flavonoid. International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research 9, 165-181.

Nur RR, Maizatul SM, Idris AS, Madihah AZ, Nasyaruddin M. 2016. The Potential of Endophytic Bacteria as a Biological Control Agent for Ganoderma Disease in Oil Palm. Sains Malaysiana 45, 401-409.

Nyassé S, Cilas C, Herail C, Blaha G. 1995. Leaf inoculation as an early screening test for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) resistance to Phytophthora black pod disease. Crop Protection 14, 657-663.

Ouattara A, Coulibaly K, Konate I, Kebe BI, Beugre GAM, Tidou AS, Abdelkarim F.-M. 2020. Screening and Selection in vitro and in vivo of Cocoa Tree (Theobroma Cacao Linn) Endophytic Bacteria Having Antagonistic Effects against Phytophthora Spp. Fungal Agents Responsible of Black Pod Disease in Côte d’Ivoire. Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology 8, 25-31.

Ouattara A, Coulibaly K, Konate I, Kebe BI, Tidou AS, Filali-Maltouf A. 2019. Selection of Cocoa Tree (Theobroma cacao Linn) Endophytic Bacteria Solubilizing Tri-Calcium Phosphate, Isolated from Seedlings Grown on Soils of Six Producing Regions of Côte d’Ivoire. Advances in Microbiology 9, 842-852.

Ploetz R. 2016. The Impact of Diseases on Cacao Production: A Global Overview in: B.A. Bailey, L.W. Meinhardt (eds.), Cacao Diseases. Springer International Publishing Switzerland, Beltsville, USA 33-59.

Pohe J, Pohe SSW, Okou SFF. 2013. Association oxyde de cuivre et metalaxyl dans la lutte contre la pourriture brune des cabosses de cacaoyer en Côte d’Ivoire. Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences 16, 2362-2368.

Rika FNB, Aris Tri W, Nurita TM. 2014. Control activity of potential antifungal-producing Burkholderia sp. in suppressing Ganoderma boninense growth in oil palm. Asian Journal of Agricultural Research 8, 259-268.

SAS. 1995. Guide to the use of PC-SAS Version 9.4 for DOS for Statistical Analysis. SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina.

Soylu S, Soylu EM, Kurt S, Ekici OK. 2005. Antagonistic potentials of rhizosphere-associated bacterial isolates against soil-borne diseases of tomato and pepper caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Rhizoctonia solani. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 8, 43-48.

Tahi GM, Kébé BI, N’Goran AKN, Sangare A, Mondeil F, Cilas C, Eskes AB. 2006. Expected selection efficiency for resistance to cacao pod rot (Phytophthora palmivora) comparing lead disc inoculations with field observations. Euphytica 149, 35-44.

Tjamos EC, Tjamos SE, Antoniou PP. 2010. Biological management of plant diseases: Highlights on research and application. Journal of Plant Pathology 92, 17-21.

Tondje PR, Hebbar PK, Samuels GJ, Bowers JH, Evans HC, Holmes KA, Onguene NA, Foko J. 2006. Microbial biocontrol methods for Phytophthra megakarya cacao black pod disease in Africa. Institute of Agricultural Research for Development 183p.

Yuan J, Li B, Zhang N, Waseem R, Shen Q, Huang Q. 2012. Production of Bacillomycinand macrolactin-type antibiotics by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 for suppressing soilborne plant pathogens. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60, 2976-2981.