Biodiversity and species composition of Coccinellid beetles (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) from Poonch division, Azad Jammu and Kashmir

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/11/2016
Views (391) Download (20)

Biodiversity and species composition of Coccinellid beetles (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) from Poonch division, Azad Jammu and Kashmir

Alia Hayat, Falak Naz, Muhammad Rafique Khan, Muhammad Ashfaque
J. Bio. Env. Sci.9( 5), 17-28, November 2016.
Certificate: JBES 2016 [Generate Certificate]


Poonch division is located in Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Poonch division comprises of three districts (Poonch, Sudhnoti, Bagh). This is mainly hilly area with alpine pastures and forest. Ladybird beetles are important due to its predatory nature and play its role in regulating population of important agricultural pest.  This study was design to explore its biodiversity in the area. To develop sustainable agriculture pest management programme. For this purpose species diversity abundance, richness and eveness of ladybird beetles were calculated. The ladybird beetles were collected from 29 different localities of this division throughout the season (April to October) from 2009-2011.  A total of 47 species under 29 genera belonging to 6 sub-families were identified. Among these, there are 40 species in district Poonch, 32 species in district Sudhnoti and 35 species in district Sudhnoti. Diversity was calculated by using Shannon-Wiener’s and Simpson’s index. Richness  was calculated by Margalef’s and Menhinick’s, Indices and evenness was calculated by Shannon-Wiener’ s Equitability Index, Pielou’s index and Nakamuras’s R-I index. The calculated values of diversity indices showed that overall highest diversity (4.873) was obtained from Abbaspur and lowest diversity (1.824) from Singhola of Poonch division. Both these localities are located in district Poonch.  In District Bagh highest diversity (4.454) was calculated from Naumanpura and lowest (2.473) from locality Bagh.  In district Shudnoti, lowest diversity (2.438) was calculated from Behtran and highest (4.309) from Azad Patan. Other diversity parameters i-e species richness and evenness are almost same in all the three districts. Among the localities, species richness is high (5.316) in Abbaspur and lowest (1.350) in Mang. Species evenness has high value (0.993) in Abbaspur and lowest (0.549) in Singhola. The results showed that Ladybird beetles are well distributed among all three districts of Poonch division. The richness, evenness and abundance were found to be normal in the surveyed area.


Ashrafi SH. 1966. Biology and morphology of the larvae of bean beetle Epilachna chrysomelina. A research monograph. The Time press, Saddar, Karachi.

Ahmad R, Ghani MA. 1966. Biology of Chilocoru sinfernalis Muls. (Coleoptera: Coccinelliade). Technical Bulletin, Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control 7, 101-106.

Ahmad R. 1968. A new species of Pseudoscymnus Chapmin (Col: Coccinellidae) predacious on scale insects in Pakistan. Entomophaga 13, 377-379.

Ahmad R. 1970. A new species of Pharoscymnus (Bedel) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) predacious on scale insects in Pakistan. Entomophaga 15, 233-235.

Ahmad R.  1973. A new tribe of the family Coccinelidae (Coleoptera) Bulletin of Entomological Research 62, 449-452.

Akhavn E, Reza J, Reza V, Sheram A. 2013.  Biodiversity and distribution of predaceaos ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences 5(6), 703-706.

Ashfaque M. 2013. Coccinellidae of Gilgit Baltistan. PhD thesis. Department of Plant Protection. University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan.

Commonwealth lnstitute of Biological  control. 1982. Investigation on natural enemies of Epilachna spp. in Pakistan. Final report, Commonwealth Institute of biological control, Pakistan station, Rawalpindi, 31 p.

Dieke GH. 1947. Lady beetles of the genus Epilachnain Asia, Europe and Australia. Smithson. Miscllenious Collection, 106(15), 1-183.

Dixon AFG. 2000.  Insect predator-prey dynamics ladybird beetles and biological control. University Press New York.

Farooq AK, Baig MIU, Mustafa SG. 1999.  Studies on spatial distribution and penology of adult Chilocorus infernalis. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 15(4), 343- 346.

Hayat A, Khan MR. 2013. Biodiversity and species composition of lady bird beetles (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) from Mirpur Division of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 30(3), 341-350.

Hayat A, Khan MR, Naz F, Rafi MA.  2014.  Ladybird beetles of Sub-family Chilocorinae (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistan Entomologist 36(2), 135-143.

Hodek I, Honek A. 19996.  Ecology of Coccinellidae. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, 464.

Irshad M. 2001. Distribution, Hosts, Ecology, and Biotic potential of Coccinellids of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 4(10), 1259-1263.

Irshad M. 2003. Aphids and their biological control in Pakistan. Pakistan  Journal of  Biological  Sciences,   6, 40-4.

Inayatullah M, Hayat A, Rafi MA. 2005. Species composition, distribution and seasonal occurrence of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) in District Poonch, Azad Kashmir with new records. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 21(1), 97-100.

Kapur AP. 1958.  Coccinellidae of Nepal. Records of the Indian Museum 53, 309-338.

Kapur AP. 1965. The Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of the Andamans Island. Zoological Survey of the India Calcutta 14(1), 1-48.

Khan MR, Sheikh MK, Rafi MA, Sharif A. 1999. Predatory Coccinellid Fauna (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of Sudhnuti District, Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistan Journal of Entomology  Karachi, 14(1&2), 5-7.

Khan IS, Din S, Khalil K, Rafi MA. 2007. Survey of predatory Coccinellids (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the Chitral District, Pakistan. Journal of Insect Science 7(7), 6.

Khan MR, Irshad M, Rafi MA. 2008. Insect Fauna of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. MK Traders, Islamabad. 143.

Khan MR, Inayatullah M, Rafi MA, Ashfaque M. 1999. Species composition, distribution and host plants of predatory coccinellids (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) in District Bagh, Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistan Journal of Entomology Karachi, 14(1&2), 1-4.

Majerus M, Kearns P. 1989. Naturalists Hand Books “Lady Birds” University of Cambridge. Richmond Publishing Co. Ltd. England. 101.

Margalef SR. 1968. Perspective in ecological theory. University of Chicago Press.Chicago and London. 111.

Margalef SR. 1969. Diversity and stability: A practical proposal: a model of inter- dependence. Book Haven Symposia in Biology 22, 25-37.

Menhinick EP. 1964. A Comparison of some Species-Individuals Diversity Indices Applied to Samples of Field Insects. Ecology 45, 859–861.

Naz F, Inayatullah M, Rafi MA, Ashfaque M, Ali A. 2012. Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata FAB; Its taxonomy, distribution and host plants in Pakistan. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 28(3), 421-427.

Rafi AM, Irshad M, Inaytullah M. 2005. Predatory Ladybird beetles of Pakistan. Rohani Art Press, Blue Area, Islamabad, Pakistan.105 p.

Rahatullah, Faizul H, Sardar AM, Kausar S,  Shamsur R. 2011. Diversity and distribution of ladybird beetles in district Dir Lower, Pakistan. International  Journal of  Biodiversity and  Conservation 3(12), 670-675.

Shah ZM. 1983. Ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) of Peshawar region. M.Sc. (Hons,) Thesis, Department of Entomology, NWFP, Agriculture University, and Peshawar (Unpublished). 109.

Shannon ER, Wiener W. 1963. The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois Press Urbana Illinois. 117.

Shunxiang R,  Xingmen W, Hong P,  Zhengqiang P, Tao Z. 2009. Colored Pictorial handbook of Lady Bird beetles in China. Science Press No. 16. North Street, City Dong Huang, Beijing China. 336.

Simpson EH. 1949. Measurement of diversity. Nature 163, 688.

Slipinski A.  2007.  Australian Ladybird beetles Coleoptera; Coccinellidae, their biology and Classification. Australian Biological Resources Study. Collection Illustrator.288 p.