Biology, seasonal incidence and the effect of the sowing dates on population density of the leafhopper, Empoasca decedens (Paoli) (Cicadellidae: Hemiptera) on cowpea in Iraq

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/10/2018
Views (271) Download (8)

Biology, seasonal incidence and the effect of the sowing dates on population density of the leafhopper, Empoasca decedens (Paoli) (Cicadellidae: Hemiptera) on cowpea in Iraq

Maryiam M. Hussein, Hameed. H. Al- Karboli
J. Bio. Env. Sci.13( 4), 45-53, October 2018.
Certificate: JBES 2018 [Generate Certificate]


The present experiments were conducted at laboratory and field of college of Agriculture, Baghdad University todiagnose the species (s) that attack cowpea fields and the nature of damage they cause and to study some aspect of biology and to assess, seasonal incidence and the effect of sowing date on leafhopper population density. Identification of the species were made by dissecting leafhopper male genitalia .While seasonal incidence and other experiment were done by estimation of randomly samples leafhopper numbers on cowpea plant leaves . Cowpea leafhopper was identified as Empoasca decedens which considered to be a new record on cowpea in Iraq. Laboratory studies showed that the incubation period of E. decedens was ranged between (6-7) days, the leafhopper had a 5 nymphal instars and the total nymphal period between (9-10 ) days, sex ratio were (2.0 F : 1.0 M ) and adult longevity ranged between (17-20 ) days at 25°-30°C and 60-70 % RH . Results indicated that E. decedens had one peak of 8 nymph / leave on cowpea plants in November and another peak of 24 .8 nymph / leave occurred during mid of May. E. decedens population density were higher and caused significant damage and loss to the cowpea plants on spring season compared with autumn season. The fluctuation of the leafhopper population of each season depending mainly on daily temperatures. There were no significant differences in the population density of the 2 sowing dates, but a significant differences were recorded between a spring sowing dates, so it recommended to sow cowpea on the end of March.


Al-Azawii AF, Ibrahim KQ, Hayder SA. 1990. Economic Entomology, College of Agriculture, university of Baghdad. Al –Hikma printing press 651 p.

Al­Asady HS. 2002. “External morphological study  of the leafhopper Empoasca decedens Paoli  (Homoptera Cicadellidae) from Iraq, Bulletin of the Iraqi Natural History Museum 9(4), 1–6.

Al-Obaidi SH, Al-Gorani RS. 2006. The resistance mechanism of some cotton cultivars Gosspiumspp to the gassed Empoasca spp. Tikrit. Journal of Agriculture science 16(4), 312- 320.

Atakan E. 2009. Damage assessment of the leafhopper complex Asymmetrasca decedens (Paoli) and Empoasca decipiens( Paoli) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in cotton. Journal. Pest Science 82, 227-234.

Al-Karboli HH, Al-Anbaki HM. 2014. Efficacy of two sampling methods for monitoring, control and estimating seasonal abundance of onion thrips,    Thripstabaci Lindeman (Thriphideae : Thysanoptera ) on onion in Iraq .Journal . of Agricultural Technology 10(1), 243-251.

Al-Hasnawi MM. 2017. Population density, seasonal abundance and nature of damage of the leafhopper, Empoasca decedens  paoil ( Homoptera : Cicadillidae) on certain corn cultivars, the Iraqi journal of  Agriculture sciences 48(4), 1131–1140.

Al–Hamadany MN, Al- Karboli HH. 2017. First record of okra leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula Ishida on okra in Iraq , International journal of Agricultural Technology 13(3), 393-402.

Freitas N, Aguin–Pombo D. 2004. Distribution, food plants and control. of the Asymmetrasca decedens Poail (Hemiptera : Cicadellidae ) . Boletim do museum municipal do funchal 56(315 ), 23–39.

Habib A, Badawi A, Hearakly F. 1972. Biological studies on certain species of the leafhopper (Hemiptera Cicadellidea) in Egypt, Journal. of Applied Entomology  71(1-4 ), 172- 178.

Haghighion E, Sadeghi SE. 2001. Report of Empoasca (Asymmetrasca) decedensPoail, 1932  (Homoptera : Cicadellidae) from Iran. Journal of Entomological society of Iran 21(2), 109-110.

Hashem MS, Abed–Elsamed AA, Saleh AA. 2009. Monitoring and seasonal abundance of the leafhoppers Empasca decipiens (Paoil ) , Empoasca decedens (poail ) and their associated predators on some leguminous vegetable crops in Egypt , Egyptian Journal of Biological pest control 19(2), 105- 114.

Jayarao B, Abulkhader SB, Naik LK, Vinaykumar MM. 2015. Assesment of Biology and morphometric characteristics of different stages of leafhopper,  Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida ). on Okra. The Bisscan 10, 671 -674.

Kaya K. 2018. Determination of Insect fauna and population density of some species in Alfafa production area in Hataty, Turkish journal of Agriculture , food science and Technology 6(3), 352 –359.

Latif Z, Ahmed S, Sohail KK, Khan K, Issfaq M. 2015. Population density of jassides, Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida and thrips, Thripstabaci, on cotton crop and efficacy of some botanical insecticides against cotton jassed and Thrips, Journal . of Biodiversity and Environmental sciences ( JBES ) 7(1), 272 -280.

Matlub AN. 1979. Practical vegetable crops. University of Baghdad, Dar – Al-Kutub for printing and publishing, Iraq, p 424.

Mahmoud TS, Hussain SI, Khokhar KM, Jeelani JG, Mukhter M. 2002. Population dynamics of leafhopper , Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida on Brinijal and effect of a biotic factors on its dynamics , Asian plant science 1, 403- 404.

Mohammed NH, Yehia WA. 2008. Biological and control of leafhopper E. decedens  (Paoil ) in mousil. Thesis submitted to Mousil , University. 65 p.

Raupeach K, Borgemeister C, Hommes M,  Poehling HM, Setamou M. 2002. Effect of temperature and host plant on bionomics of Empoasca decipiens (Homptera : Cicadellidae ) Crop protection 21(2), 110- 113.

Timko MP, Singh BB. 2008. Cowpea, A multifunctional legume . In Genomics of tropical crop plants. Springer, New York, NY, (p 227-258 ).