J. Bio. Env. Sci.2(11), 23-30, November 2012
The potential for copper (Cu2+) reduction in a fixed-film bioreactor system was investigated using a copper reducing bacterial species Bacillus subtilis. This work on the process of biosorption of copper from wastewater in a continuous-flow, fixed packed-bed bioreactor was conducted in a search for solution to the environmental problem caused by heavy metals. The Cu2+ bearing solution with initial concentration in the range of 50 – 150 mg/L was continuously pumped downward into the column. The Cu2+ loading rates were ranged from 180 to 900 ml/h. Analysis of the results demonstrated that the biosorbent had an extraordinary capacity for biosorption of copper (II) studied at about 4.5 pH of the effluent, with a removal percentage of 71.2% and 63.2% for the two immobilization methods used. Agar immobilized Bacillus subtilis biomass was found to be more efficient than polyacrylamide immobilized biomass in the packed bed bioreactor.
Aksu Z. 1999. The biosorption of copper (II) by C. vulgaris and Zramigera. Environ Technol. 13, 579-586.
Chang JS, Law R, Chang CC. 1997. Biosorption of lead, copper and cadmium by biomass of Pseudomona aeruginosa PU21, Water Res. 31, 1651-1658.
Eriksson J, Andersson A, Andersson R. 1997. The state of Swedish farmlands. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency Report 4778. Stockholm: Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, p. 59.
Kalavathy MH, Karthikeyan T, Rajgopal S, Miranda LR. 2005. Kinetics and isotherm studies of Cu(II) adsorption onto H3PO4- activated rubber wood sawdust. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 292, 354-362.
Kierstan MPJ, Coughlan MP. 1985. Immobilisation of cells and enzymes by gel entrapment. Immobilized Cells and Enzymes, ed. J. Woodward. Oxford IRL Press, p. 39-48, Washington, USA.
Martinez CE, Motto HL. 2000. Solubility of lead, zinc and copper added to mineral soils. Environ Pollut. 107(1), 153–8.
Narasimhulu K, Rao PS, Vinod AV. 2010. “Isolation and Identification of Bacterial Strains and Study of their Resistance to Heavy Metals and Antibiotics. J Microbial Biochem Technol 2, 074-076. doi:10.4172/1948-5948.1000027.
Nourbakhsh M, Sag Y, Ozer D, Aksu Z, Caglar A. 1994. A comparative study of various biosorbents for removal of copper ions from industrial wastewaters. Process Biochemistry 29, 1-5.
Rome L, Gadd GM. 1987. Copper adsorption by Rhizopus arrhizus, Cladosporium resinae and Penicillium italieum. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 26, 84-90.
Sag Y, Kutsal T. 2000. Determination of the biosorption heats of heavy metal ions on Zoogloea ramigera and Rhizopus arrhizus. Biochem. Eng. J. 6, 145–151.
Skryabin GK, Koscheenko KA. 1987. Immobilization of living microbial cells in polyacrylamide gel. Methods in Enzymology Vol. 135. Immobilized Enzyme and Cells Part B, ed. K. Mosbach. Academic Press Inc., p. 198-215.
Vieira RHSF, Volesky B. 2000. Biosorption: a solution to pollution. Int Microbiol. 3, 17–24.
Vijayaraghavan K, Yun YS. 2008. Bacterial biosorbents and biosorption. Biotechnology Advances. 26, 266–291.
Wang J, Chen C. 2006. Biosorption of heavy metals by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a review. Biotechnology Advances 24(5), 427-451.