Breeding biology of barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) at Tehsil Balakot, Pakistan

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Breeding biology of barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) at Tehsil Balakot, Pakistan

Noman Shah, Shabir Ahmed, Sajid Mahmood, Muhammad Awais, Shaukat Ali, Imad-Ul-Din Zangi
J. Bio. Env. Sci.7( 6), 32-40, December 2015.
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This study was conducted at Tehsil Balakot in District Mansehra, during the breeding season February to June 2014. Details about nests and eggs characteristics are provided. All nests were attached to vertical walls and roofs of buildings and situated at mean height 2.8±0.43 m above ground with nest diameter 14.78±3.13cm, nest depth3.97±0.90 cm, nest cup diameter10.91±2.46 cm and nest cup depth3.27±0.80 cm. Nests attached to cemented walls were (46.3%), plastic surfaces (20.4%), wooden materials (16.7%), soil walls (11.1%) and to mirrors (5.6%). The average clutch size was 3.7 ranged 2 – 5. Mean egg length was 18.50±1.6 mm, breadth 13.6±1.2 mm, egg volume 1.80±0.5 cm3,egg shape index 1.36±0.03 andegg weight was recorded 1.81±0.1 g. Egg and nest success was 76%and 85%.Hatchling and fledgling produced per nest was 2.84 and 2.44. Main causes for reproductive failures were unhatched and broken eggs, predation and observer’s disruption.


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