Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | December 1, 2015

VIEWS 4
| Download 2

Breeding biology of barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) at Tehsil Balakot, Pakistan

Noman Shah, Shabir Ahmed, Sajid Mahmood, Muhammad Awais, Shaukat Ali, Imad-Ul-Din Zangi

Key Words:


J. Bio. Env. Sci.7(6), 32-40, December 2015

Certification:

JBES 2015 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

This study was conducted at Tehsil Balakot in District Mansehra, during the breeding season February to June 2014. Details about nests and eggs characteristics are provided. All nests were attached to vertical walls and roofs of buildings and situated at mean height 2.8±0.43 m above ground with nest diameter 14.78±3.13cm, nest depth3.97±0.90 cm, nest cup diameter10.91±2.46 cm and nest cup depth3.27±0.80 cm. Nests attached to cemented walls were (46.3%), plastic surfaces (20.4%), wooden materials (16.7%), soil walls (11.1%) and to mirrors (5.6%). The average clutch size was 3.7 ranged 2 – 5. Mean egg length was 18.50±1.6 mm, breadth 13.6±1.2 mm, egg volume 1.80±0.5 cm3,egg shape index 1.36±0.03 andegg weight was recorded 1.81±0.1 g. Egg and nest success was 76%and 85%.Hatchling and fledgling produced per nest was 2.84 and 2.44. Main causes for reproductive failures were unhatched and broken eggs, predation and observer’s disruption.

VIEWS 4

Copyright © 2015
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
http://innspub.net
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Breeding biology of barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) at Tehsil Balakot, Pakistan

Ali S, Ripley SD. 1987. Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan. Compact ed. Oxford University Press, New Delhi.

Al-Raway M, George PV. 1966. Preliminary report on Breeding Biology of Common Swallow Hirundo rustica rustica in Baghdad.Bull. Biol. Res.Ctr2, 57-61.

Balakrishnan P. 2010.Breeding Biology of the Hill Swallow Hirundo domicolain Western Ghats, India. Journal of Bombay Natural History and Society 107, 109-115.

Boekelheide RJ, Ainley DG. 1989. Age, resource, availability, and breeding effort in Brand’s Cormorant. The Auk 106, 389–401.

Cramp S. 1998. Complete birds of Western Palaearctic’s on CD-ROM. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Desrochers A, Mcgrath RD. 1993. Age-specific fecundity in European Blackbirds (Turdusmerula): individual and population trends. The Auk 110, 255– 263.

Dolenec Z. 2002. Breeding characteristics of the Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) in NW Croatia. Natura Croatica 4, 439-445.

Dolenec Z. 2013. Monitoring of the arrival time in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) population from Mokrice Village (Croatia), 1980–2011.NaturaCroatica 22, 183-187.

Earle RA. 1989. Breeding Biology of the Red-breasted Swallow Hirundo semirufa. Ostrich 60, 13-21.

Hails CJ. 1984. The breeding biology of the Pacific Swallow Hirundo tahiticain Malaysia. Ibis 126, 198 – 211.

Higgins PJ, Peter JM, Cowling SJ. 2006. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. In: Part A. Boatbill to Larks. Vol 7.Melbourne, Victoria, Oxford University Press.

Horak P, Mand R, Ots I, Leivits A. 1995. Egg size in the Great Tit Parus major: individual, habitat and geographic differences. OrnisFennica 72, 97–114.

Jackson HD, Spottiswoode C. 2004. Breeding biology and taxonomy of the Red-breasted Swallow Hirundo semirufa in Zimbabwe.Ostrich 75, 5-10.

Jaun JS, Meller AP, Soler M. 1998. Nest building, sexual selection and parental investment. Evolutionary Ecology 12, 427-441.

Mcginn DB, Clark H. 1978.Some measurements of Swallow breeding biology in lowland Scotland.Bird Study 25, 109 – 118.

Moller AP. 1983. Breeding habitat selection in the Swallow Hirundo rustica.Bird Study 30, 134-142.

Moller AP. 1985. Mixed reproductive strategy and mate guarding in a semi-colonial Passerine, the swallow H. rustica. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 17, 401-408.

Moller AP. 1994. Patterns of fluctuating asymmetry and selection against asymmetry. Evolution 48, 658-671.

Murphy TM. 1994. Breeding patterns of Eastern Phoebes in Kansas: Adaptive strategies or physiological constraint. The Auk 111, 617–633.

Murray BG. 2000. Measuring annual reproductive success in birds. The Condor 102, 470- 473.

Noordwikj A, Van J, Balen J, Van H, Scharlov W. 1980. Heritability of ecologically important traits in the Great Tit Parus major.Ardea 68, 193 – 203.

Oatley T. 2002. Striped swallows. Africa. Birds and Birding 7, 20-22.

Patrick S, John O. 2010.Breeding biology of Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica in Counties Cork and Waterford, Ireland. Bird Study 57, 256-260.

Pawel C, Piotr Z. 2008: Untypical eggs of the Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica. Hirundo 21, 87-91.

Perrins CM. 1969. The timing of birds breeding seasons. Ibis 112, 242 – 255.

Pikula J, Beklova M. 1987. Bionomics of the family Hirundonidae. Actascientiarumnaturalium Academiaescientiarumbohemoslovacae Brno 21, 1-39.

Pramod P, Yom-Tov Y. 2000. The breeding season and clutch size of Indian passerines. Ibis 142, 75-81.

Roberts  TJ.  1992.  The  Birds  of  Pakistan.  Vol. 2.Oxford University Press.

Robinson RA, Crick HQP, Peach WJ. 2003. Population trends of Swallows Hirundo rustica in Britain. Bird Study 50, 1-7.

Sakraoui R, Dadci W, Chabi Y, Banbura J. 2005.Breeding biology of Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica in Algeria, North Africa.OrnisFennica 82, 33-43.

Tucker GM, Heath MF. 1994. Birds in Europe: Their conservation status. Bird-life International, Cambridge.

Turner AK, Rose C. 1989. A Handbook to the Swallows and Martins of the World. Christopher Helm, London.

Turner AK. 1994. The Swallow. Hamlyn, London.

Turner AK. 2004. Family Hirundinidae (swallows and martins). In: Del Hoyo JA, Eliott DA. Christie(Eds). Handbook  of the Birds of the World.  Lynx Editions, Barcelona 9, 602 – 685 p.

Verheyen R. 1967. Oologica Belgica. Inst. Royal Sci. Belgique,  Brussels.  Victoria.  Melbourne  University Press.

SUBMIT MANUSCRIPT

Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background