Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Cancer incidence of digestive system with reference to the assessment of selected polychlorinated biphenyl congeners

Research Paper | October 1, 2016

| Download 3

Mohammad Attaullah, Masarrat J. Yousuf, Islam Dad, Muhammad Amin, Syed Ishtiaq Anjum, Rooh Ullah

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.9( 4), 328-334, October 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/9.4.328-334


IJB 2016 [Generate Certificate]


The present study was aimed to ascertain the levels of seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in patients with cancers of the digestive system in comparison to normal healthy subjects. Fasting blood samples were collected from the donors with informed consent and the isolated sera of each sample was extracted with organic solvents and analyzed for the residues of PCBs with Gas Chromatograph coupled with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD). Mean level of total PCBs (ΣPCBs) was found significantly elevated in the cancer patients (2.555 mg/kg) compared with the healthy subjects (0.361 mg/kg). PCB 52 was detected in high concentrations compared with other PCB congeners with a level of 1.629 mg/kg in the cancer patients and 0.12 mg/kg in the healthy subjects. All of the cancer samples (100 %) and 91.42 % of the healthy subjects were detected positive for the presence of PCBs. Highest mean level of ΣPCBs (7.259 mg/kg) was found in cancer cases of the gall bladder while lowest mean level (0.44 mg/kg) was found in cases of the small intestine. Concentrations and frequencies of the studied individual PCB congeners (PCB-28, PCB-52, PCB-101, PCB-138, PCB-153, PCB-180 and PCB-209) as well as ΣPCBs were found significantly elevated in the cancer cases compared with the healthy subjects. It can be concluded from the obtained results that PCBs have a positive association with the risk of cancer of the digestive system. These persistent chemicals which circulate in various environmental compartments including humans seem to have a role in the chemical basis of carcinogenesis.


Copyright © 2016
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Cancer incidence of digestive system with reference to the assessment of selected polychlorinated biphenyl congeners

ATSDR. 2000. Toxicological profile for polychlori-nated biphenyls (PCBs). Atlanta, GA, US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry 765 pp.+app.

ATSDR. 2014. Case Studies in Environmental Medicine, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Toxicity. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Course: WB 2460.

Attaullah M, Yousuf MJ, Shaukat S, Munshi AB, Khawaja S, Anjum SI. 2016. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues and etiology of cancer: a case control study in the residents of Karachi city. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences 9(2), 212-221.

Atuma SS, Aune M. 1999. Method for the determination of PCB congeners and chlorinated pesticides in human serum. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 62, 8–15.

Clark HA, Snedeker SM. 2005. Critical evaluation of the cancer risk of dibromo chloropropane (DBCP). Journal of Environmental Sciences and Health, Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis and Ecotoxicology Reviews 23, 215-260.

Covaci A, Jorens P, Jacquemyn Y, Schepens R. 2002. Distribution of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in umbilical cord and maternal serum. Science Total Environment 298, 45-53.

Demers A, Ayotte P, Brisson J, Dodin S, Robert J, Dewilly E. 2002. Plasma concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and the risk of breast cancer: A congener-specific analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology 155, 629–635.

Dharmani C, Jaga K. 2005. Epidemiology of acute organophosphate poisoning in hospital emergency room patients. Reviews in Environmental Health 20, 215-232.

Ejaz S, Waseem A, Lim CW, Lee JJ, Hussain I. 2004. Endocrine disrupting pesticides: a leading cause of cancer among rural people in Pakistan. Experimental Oncology 26, 98-105.

Ghosh S, De S, Chen Y, Sutton DC, Ayorinde FO, Dutta SK. 2010. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB-153) and (PCB-77) absorption in human liver (HepG2) and kidney (HK2) cells in vitro: PCB levels and cell death. Environment International 36, 893–900.

Hoppin JA, Tolbert PE, Holly EA, Brock JW, Korrick SA, Altshul LM, et al. 2000. Pancreatic Cancer and Serum Organochlorine Levels. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 9, 199–205.

Khawaja S, Yousuf MJ, Khan AJ. 2010. Polychlorinated Residues in Milk of Lactating Women from Karachi, Pakistan. Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 6, 153-157.

Malik RN, Nadeem M. 2011. Spatial and temporal characterization of trace elements and nutrients in the Rawal Lake Reservoir, Pakistan, using multivariate analysis techniques. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 33, 525–541.

Oakley GG, Devanaboyina U, Robertson LW, Gupta RC. 1996. Oxidative DNA damage induced by activation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): Implications for PCB-induced oxidative stress in breast cancer. Chemical Research in Toxicology 9, 1285-1292.

Pauwels A, Covaci A, Weyler L, Delbeke Dhot M, Sutter PD, Hooghe TD, Schepens PJC. 2000. Comparison of organic pollutants residues in serum and adipose tissue in a female population in Belgium, 1996-1998. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 39, 265-270.

Romieu I, Hernandez-Avila M, Lazcano-ponce E, Weber JP, Dewailly E. 2000. Breast cancer, lactation history and serum organochlorines. American Journal of Epidemiology 152, 363–370.

Sobia K, Rubina M, Rehana M, Masarrat JY, Attaullah M, Fozia T, Rabiya F. 2013. Monitoring of biochemical effects of organochlorine pesticides on human health. 5, 1342-1350. www.dx.org/10.4236/health

Sobia K, Yousuf MJ, Azmi MA, Attaullah M. 2012. Determination of pesticide residues hexachlorocyclohexane, cyclodiene, diphenylaliphate and their metabolites in the breast milk of women from Karachi-Pakistan. Medical Forum 23, 19-22.

Stellman SD, Djordjevic MV, Britton JA, Muscat JE, Citron ML, Kemeny M, Busch E, Gong L. 2000. Breast cancer risk in relation to adipose concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 9, 1241-1249.

United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 2015. Accessed online at: www.epa.gov/epawaste/hazard/tsd/pcbs/about.htm

Ward EM, Schulte P, Grajewski B. 2000. Serum Organochlorine Levels and Breast Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study of Norwegian Women. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 19, 1357-1367.

Weiderpass E, Adami H, Baron JA, Wicklund-Glynn A, Aune M, Atuma S, Ingemar PI. 2000. Organochlorines and Endometrial Cancer Risk. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 9, 487-493.

WHO. 2003. Polychlorinated biphenyls: Human health aspects. (Concise international chemical assessment document; 55), World Health Organisation. Available at http://www.who.int/pcs/pubs/pub_cicad.htm