Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.5(3), 45-51, September 2014
Soil organic carbon (SOC) storage has been widely considered as a measure for mitigating global climate change through C sequestration (SOCS) in soils. A study was conducted by evaluating SOC, total N, available P, K, bulk density, and total soil microbes under organic system and conventional of Local rice variety at the same time in two farmer fields (subak Jatiluwih and Wangaya Betan at Mangesta village in Penebel district,Tabanan regency, Bali Indonesia. Half of farmers in those two locations have been managing certified organic system with Red local rice variety for two years (2010-2012), while the other half maintaining conventional system. Composite soil samples were taken at three points at depth of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm in three replications at each location. Results showed that after two years, organic system resulted in better soil quality and higher SOCS only in Jatiluwih. Significantly higher SOC (3.338%), total N (0.252%), available P (15.84 ppm), K (133.63 ppm), bulk density (0.510 Mg m-3) and higher SOCS (81.354 Mg ha-1) were recorded under organic compared to conventional system. In Wangaya Betan, those components, except bulk density, were not different under two systems. The yield of Red local rice variety under organic was 6.44.t ha-1 compared to 5.12 t ha-1 under conventional system.
Bhooshan N, Prasad C. 2011. Organic Farming: Hope of posterity. In: Hope of Posterity (Eds.), Organic Agriculture: UP Council of Agricultural Research (UPCAR), Lucknow, India. 1-10 p.
Blair GJ, Lefroy RDB, Lisle L. 1995. Soil carbon fractions based on their degree of oxidation, and the development of a carbon management index for agricultural systems. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 46, 1459-66.
BPS. 2010. Bali Dalam Angka 2010. Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi Bali 2010. (In Bahasa Indonesia). 60-85 p. (In Bahasa Indonesia).
BPTP. 2008. Laporan Akhir Tahun Prima Tani Lahan sawah Intensif, Subak Guama, Marga, Tabanan. Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Bali, Balai Besar Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Teknologi Pertanian, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian Departemen Pertanian. p.50-65 (In Bahasa Indonesia).
Brochers JG, Perry DA. 1992. The influence of soil texture and aggregation on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in southwest Oregon forests and clear cuts. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 22, 298-305.
Carpenter BL, Kennedy AC, Reganold JP. 2000. Organic and biodynamic management effects on soil biology. Soil Science Society of America Journal 64, 1651-1659.
Chitra L, Janaki P. 1999. Combined effect of organic wastes and inorganic nutrients on the nutrient uptake and yield of rice in kar and pishanam seasons. Oryza 36, 327-330.
Cui J, Zhang R, Bu N, Zhang H, Tang B, Li Z, Jiang L, Chen J, Fang C. 2012. Changes in soil carbon sequestration and soil respiration following afforestation on paddy fields in north subtropical China. Journal of Plant Ecology. Advance Access published September 5, 2012. 1–13 p.
Gomez KA, Gomez AA. 1984. Statistical procedures for agricultural research. (2nd Edn), John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA.704 p.
Huang Y, Sun WJ, Zhang W, Yu YQ. 2010. Changes in soil organic carbon of terrestrial ecosystems in China: A mini review, Science China Life Sciences 53, 766-775.
Komatsuzaki M, Ohta H. 2007. Soil management practices for sustainable agro-ecosystems. Sustainability Science 2, 103-120.
Komatsuzaki M, Syuaib MF. 2010. Comparison of the farming system and carbon sequestration between conventional and organic rice production in West Java, Indonesia. Sustainability 2(3), 833-843.
Lal R. 2007. Carbon sequestration. Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society 363, 815–830.
Minasny B, Sulaeman Y, MCBratney AB. 2011. Is soil carbon disappearing? The dynamics of soil organic carbon in Java. Global Change Biology 17, 1917-1924.
Nakhro N, Dkhar MS. 2010. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers on microbial populations and biomass carbon in paddy field soil. Journal of Agronomy 9, 102-110.
OECD. 2001. Executive summary. Environmental indicators for agriculture. Methods and results. Paris, 2001. 53 p.
Olson KR, Al-Kaisi MM, Lal R, Lowery B. 2014. Experimental consideration, treatments, and methods in determining soil organic carbon sequestration rates. Soil Science Society of American Journal 78, 348–360.
Pan GX, Li LQ, Wu LS, Zhang XH. 2004. Storage and sequestration potential of topsoil organic carbon in China’s paddy soils. Global ChangeBiology 10(1), 79–92.
Pan GX, Xu XW, Smith P, Pan W, Lal R. 2010. An increase in topsoil SOC stock of China’s croplands between 1985 and 2006 revealed by soil monitoring. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 136(1-2), 133–138.
Pan GX, Zhou P, Zhang XH, Li LQ, Zheng JF, Qiu DS, Chu QH. 2006. Effect of different fertilization practices on crop carbon assimilation and soil carbon sequestration: a case of a paddy under a long-term fertilization trial from the Tai Lake region, China. Acta Ecologica Sinica 26(11), 3704– 3710. (in Chinese).
Pantawat S. 2012. Effect of organic fertilizer use in rice paddy to reduce greenhouse gases. 2nd International Conference on Environmental and Agriculture Engineering IPCBEE 37, Singapore.
Pathak H, Kushwala JS, Jain MC. 1992. Evaluation of manurial value of biogas spent slurry composted with dry mango leaves, wheat straw and rock phosphate on wheat crop. Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science 40, 753-757.
Rahman MM. 2013. Nutrient-use and carbon-sequestration efficiencies in soils from different organic wastes in rice and tomato cultivation. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 44(9), 1457-1471.
Shofiyati R, Las I, Agus F. 2010. Indonesian soil database and predicted stock of soil carbon. In: Chen ZS, Agus F (eds). Proc. International workshop on evaluation and sustainable management of soil carbon sequestration in Asean countries. Indonesian Soil Research Institute (ISRI), Food&Fertilizer Technology Center for the Asian and Pacific Region (FFTC) and National Institute for Agro-environmental sciences (NIAES), 73-83 p.
Wang SX, Liang XG, Luo QX, Fan F, Chen YX, Li ZZ, Sun HX, Dai TF, Wan JN, Li XJ. 2012. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B. 13(4), 274–282.