Cassava grit weight losses and management options against African honeybees (Apis: mellifera) in Mtwara region, Tanzania

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/11/2017
Views (225) Download (4)

Cassava grit weight losses and management options against African honeybees (Apis: mellifera) in Mtwara region, Tanzania

Kasiga Ngiha Ndibanya, Kelvin Mtei, Ernest R. Mbega
J. Bio. Env. Sci.11( 5), 356-364, November 2017.
Certificate: JBES 2017 [Generate Certificate]


Field trials to estimate post-harvest cassava grits losses caused by honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) were conducted from July to November 2016 in Mtwara region, Tanzania. The aim of this study was to quantify cassava grit weight losses due honeybees and its management options. Four treatments were applied including cassava grits with an agro-net, cassava grits supplied with sugar solution, cassava grits supplied with cashew apple juice and artificial hornet’s nests. Uncovered cassava was used as control. In each treatment about 10kg of cassava grits were placed on a black polyethylene plastic sheet at exactly 10:00am- 16:00pm and the experiment was repeated daily for 16 weeks. The results showed that honeybees caused an average loss in cassava grit weight of about 31.28%. Of the treatments tested, no weight loss as result of honeybees was observed on cassava grits covered with agro net. The results also showed that in grits supplied with sugar solution only 2.2% was lost due to honeybees while loss in those supplied with cashew juice and artificial hornet’s nests were 20.31% and 10.72%, respectively. It is concluded that cassava grits can be effectively prevented from honeybees drying weight losses through covering with agro nets or only allow about 2.2% of loss by supplementing cassava grits with sugar solution during drying process. Therefore, agro-nets and sugar solution supplement are recommended to prevent Apis mellifera during sun drying of cassava grits in Mtwara region, Tanzania.


Abou-Shaara HF. 2014. The foraging behaviour of honey bees, Apis mellifera: A review. Veterinarni Medicina 59(1).

Abou-shaara HF. 2013. Wintering Map for Honey Bee Colonies in El-Behera Governorate, Egypt by using Geographical Information System (GIS).  Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 17(3), 403-408.

Abou-shaara HF, Al-ghamdi AA, Mohamed AA. 2012. Tolerance of two honey bee races to various temperature and relative humidity gradients. Env. Exp. Biol 10, 133-138.

Adebowale AA, Sanni LO, Onitilo MO. 2008. Chemical composition and pasting properties of tapioca grits from different cassava varieties and roasting methods. African Journal of Food Science 2(7), 077-082.

Delaware W, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Cooperating WV. 2000. Bee aware: Notes and news on bees and beekeeping, MAAREC Publisher.

FAO. 2010. World bank workshop on reducing post-harvest losses in grain supply chains in Africa on 18- 19 march, 2010 in Rome, Italy.

FAO and IFAD. 2005. A review of cassava in Africa with country case studies on Nigeria, Ghana, the United Republic of Tanzania, Uganda and Benin. In Proc. Valid. forum Glob. cassava Dev. Strateg.. Rome: International Fund for Agricultural Development/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Girma G, Bultosa G, Abera S. 2015. Effect of cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) variety, drying method and blending ratio on the proximate composition and sensory properties of cassava-wheat composite bread 3, 41-54.

Harbo JR. 2000. Heating adult honeybees to remove Varroa Jacobsoni. Journal of apicultural research 39(3-4), 181-183.

Kwikwega HM. 2005. Evaluation of farmer knowledge on Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) in the roman catholic church diocese of Tunduru- Masasi in South Eastern Tanzania. M.Sc thesis, The open university of Tanzania and Southern new hampshire.

Jeremiah SC, Mkamilo GS. 2005. Current status of Cassava improvement programme in Tanzania. In African crop science Conference proceedings 7, 1311-1314.

Lazaro EA, Lisasi H, Assenga A. 2007. Cassava in Tanzania: A famine or commercial reserve? In Proceedings of the 13th ISTRC Symposium (pp. 614-621).

Majumdar A, Powell M. 2011. Net house vegetable production: Pest management successes and challenges. Journal of the NACAA 4(1).

Mlingi NV, Ndunguru GT. 2007. A review of post-harvest activities for cassava in Tanzania. In R. Kapinga, R. Kingamkono, M. Msabaha, J. Ndunguru, B. Lemaga and G. Tusiime, Tropical root and tuber crops: opportunities for poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihoods in developing countries. Proceedings of the 13th triennial symposium of the ISTRC 506-513.

Prasannakumar NR, Chander P, Kumar PK. 2015. Role of pollinators in Broccoli seed production. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems 21(2), 187-189.

Nanam D, Andrew GEO, Boateng EO. 2003. Production of high quality cassava flour. TECA (

Nellemann C. (Ed.). 2009. The environmental food crisis: the environment’s role in averting future food crises: a UNEP rapid response assessment. UNEP/Earth print.

Nene WA, Rwegasira GM, Offenberg J, Mwatawala M, Nielsen M. 2015. Mating behavior of the African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 62(3), 396-400.

Olaleye OO, Otunola ET, Oyebanji AO, Adetunji CO. 2013. Effectiveness of trench and moist sawdust as storage methods for maintenance of moisture contents and micro-organisms of cassava roots by variety. Journal of Food Science 2, 19-22.

Onyenwoke CA, Simonyan KJ. 2014. Cassava post-harvest processing and storage in Nigeria. A review. African journal of Agriculture research 9(53), 3853-3863.

Muhammad-Lawal A, Omotesho OA, Oyedemi FA. 2013. An Assessment of the Economics of Cassava Processing in Kwara State, Nigeria. In invited paper presented at the 4th International Conference of the African Association of Agricultural Economists.

Onyenwoke CA, Simonyan KJ. 2014. Cassava post-harvest processing and storage in Nigeria: A review. African Journal of Agricultural Research 9(53), 3853-3863.

Ranaivoson RL, Adebayo A. 2010. High quality cassava flour, promising raw material for bread, biscuit and pastry industries: lessons from a pilot study in Madagascar.

Somerville D. 2014. Feeding sugar to honey bees 2-7.

Stein J, Anders NAL. 2009. How does climate warming affect plant‐pollinator interactions? Ecology letters 12(2), 184-195.

Team MD, Olapeju O, Moutairou E, Nankagninou D, Komlaga GA. 2010. Training manual (draft) processing of Cassava into gari and high quality cassava flour in West Africa.

Tivana LD. 2012. Cassava processing: safety and protein fortification.

Uma T, Rama R, Khamis BS. 2012. Clarification, preservation, and shelf life evaluation of cashew apple juice. Food Science and Biotechnology 21(3), 709-714.