Causes and consequences of mother tree population decline in Fazara Natural Forest Reserve, Sudan

Paper Details

Research Paper 16/07/2023
Views (404) Download (73)
current_issue_feature_image
publication_file

Causes and consequences of mother tree population decline in Fazara Natural Forest Reserve, Sudan

Elmugheira MI. Mohammed, Difo V. Harouna, Elmamoun H. Osman, Elmalih MI. Mohammed, Sohad AA. Fadlelmola
J. Bio. Env. Sci.23( 1), 189-209, July 2023.
Certificate: JBES 2023 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

Although recent progress has been made in exploring and understanding tree population ecology and factors that disturb its development and dynamics, other pivotal research gaps remain untouched. Causes and consequences of mother tree decline, a seed-producing source and biodiversity niche, are at the core of these gaps. We bridged this gap by analyzing the status of mother trees, dendrometric parameters, stand parameters, and factors driving changes in species composition at Fazara natural forest reserve, across 74 samples of 1000 m2, systematically distributed in the high and lowland sites of the forest. To run the analysis, we respectively used ANOVA, paired-sampled t-test, post hoc test, and cross-tabulation in JAMOVI, Minitab, and SPSS. Findings showed that the abundance of mother trees, saplings, and seedlings were twice and three times higher in highland sites than lowland ones, respectively (F1,72 = 141.2 and P = 0.03; F1,72 = 128.3 and P = 0.01; F1,72 = 116.5 and P < 0.001, respectively). While juvenile trees displayed no significant differences between the sites (F1,72 = 162.4 and P = 0.06). Illegal harvesting was the principal contributor to mother tree decline, where stumps and debranched trees density at lowland sites were four and three times that of highland sites, respectively. However, deterioration of species richness, regeneration, and abundance were the common consequences of mother trees decline in the reserve. Interventions through restriction of trespassing, awareness-raising, and patrolling guards are urgently needed to protect both mother and juvenile trees.

VIEWS 103

Abdou L, Morou B, Abasse T, Mahamane A. 2016. Analysis of the structure and diversity of Prosopis africana (G. et Perr.) Taub. Tree stands in the Southeastern Niger. Journal of Plant Studies 5(1), 58. https://doi.org/10.5539/jps.v5n1p58

Adam YO, Pretzsch J, Pettenella D. 2013. Contribution of non-timber forest products livelihood strategies to rural development in drylands of Sudan: Potentials and failures. Agricultural Systems 117, 90-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2012.12.008

Adekunle VAJ, Olagoke AO. 2011. The impacts of timber harvesting on residual trees and seedlings in a tropical rain forest ecosystem , southwestern Nigeria. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Servics & Management 6(3-4), 131-138. https://doi.org/10.1080/21513732.2010.534976

Ahmed AT, Desougi MA. 2014. The Ecology of Some Gum Tree Species and Their Uses at Tozi Natural Forest, Sinnar State, Sudan. Journal of Natural Resources & Evironmental Studies, 6456(6), 29-35.

Aleza K, Villamor GB, Nyarko BK, Wala K, Akpagana K. 2018. Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn C. F.) fruit yield assessment and management by farm households in the Atacora district of Benin. PLoS ONE 13(1). https://doi.org/10.1371 /journal. pone.0190234

Ali OB, Ibrahim EM, Abdelmagid TD. 2015. Detection of tree species dynamic changes on Savannah ecology through diameter at breast height , Case study Heglieg area , Sudan. Journal of Natural Resources & Environmental Studies 3(1), 24-30.

Alzubair MAH, Hamdan SAM. 2020. Deterioration of Blue Nile forests and its ecological effects in the Gezira State-Sudan. MOJ Ecology & Environmental Sciences 5(1), 34-40. https://doi.org/ 10.15406/mojes.2020.05.00174

Amahowe IO, Gaoue OG, Natta AK, Piponiot C, Zobi IC, Hérault B. 2018. Functional traits partially mediate the effects of chronic anthropogenic disturbance on the growth of a tropical tree. AoB Plants 10(3), 113. https://doi.org/10.1093 /aobpla

Anderson TM, Dong Y,mcnaughton SJ. 2006. Nutrient acquisition and physiological responses of dominant Serengeti grasses to variation in soil texture and grazing. Journal of Ecology 94(6), 1164-1175. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2006.01148.x

Angelsen A. 2012. Measuring Livelihoods and Environmental Dependence. In Measuring Livelihoods and Environmental Dependence. https://doi.org /10.4324/9781849775694

ArosamL, Bastos R, Cabral JA, Freitas H, Costa SR, Santos M. 2017. Long-term sustainability of cork oak agro-forests in the Iberian Peninsula: A model-based approach aimed at supporting the best management options for the montado conservation. Ecological Modelling, 343, 68-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel. 2016.8

Asbeck T, Großmann J, Paillet Y, Winiger N, Bauhus J. 2021. The use of tree-related microhabitats as forest biodiversity indicators and to guide integrated forest management. Current Forestry Reports. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40725-020-00132-5

Asigbaase M, Sjogersten S, Lomax HB, Dawoe E. 2019. Tree diversity and its ecological importance value in organic and conventional cocoa agroforests in Ghana. PLoS ONE 14(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/ 10.1371/journal.pone.0210557

Assogbadjo AE, Kakaï RLG, Sinsin B, Pelz D. 2010. Structure of Anogeissus leiocarpa Guill., Perr. natural stands in relation to anthropogenic pressure within Wari-Maro Forest Reserve in Benin. African Journal of Ecology 48(3), 644-653. https://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2009.01160.x

Aubad J, Aragón P, Olalla-Tárraga MÁ, Rodríguez MÁ. 2008. Illegal logging, landscape structure and the variation of tree species richness across North Andean forest remnants. Forest Ecology and Management 255(5-6), 1892-1899. https:// doi.org/ 10.1016/j.foreco.2007.12.011

Ball L, Tzanopoulos J. 2020. Livestock browsing affects the species composition and structure of cloud forest in the Dhofar Mountains of Oman. Applied Vegetation Science 23(3), 363-376. https://doi.org/ 10.1111/avsc.12493

Bayih W, Yihune M. 2018. Population status, feeding ecology and activity pattern of common bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus decula) in Sekele Mariam Forest, West Gojjam, Ethiopia. Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment 10(5), 69-79. https://doi.org/10.5897/jene2018.0689

Beche D, Gebeyehu G, Feyisa K. 2016. Indigenous utilization and management of useful plants in and around Awash National Park, Ethiopia. Journal of Plant Biology & Soil Health 3(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.13188/2331-8996.1000008

Belsky AJ. 1994. Influences of trees on savanna productivity: Tests of shade, nutrients, and tree-grass competition. Ecology 75(4), 922-932. https://doi.org/ 10.2307/1939416

Beltrán-Rodríguez L, Valdez-Hernández JI, Saynes-Vásquez A, Blancas J, Sierra-Huelsz JA, Cristians S, Martínez-Ballesté A, Romero-Manzanares A, Luna-Cavazos M, de la Rosa MAB, Pineda-Herrera E, Maldonado-Almanza B, Ángeles-Pérez G, Ticktin T, Bye R. 2021. Sustaining medicinal barks: Survival and bark regeneration of amphipterygium adstringens (anacardiaceae), A tropical tree under experimental debarking. Sustainability (Switzerland) 13(5), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052860

Bergeron Y, Leduc A, Harvey BD, Bergeron SG, Leduc Y, Gauthier H. 2002. Natural Fire Regime: A Guide for Sustainable Management of the Canadian Boreal Forest. Silva Fennica 36(1), 81-95.

Bindraban P, Stoorvogel J, Jansen D, Vlaming J, Groot JJ. 2000. Land quality indicators for sustainable land management: proposed method for yield gap and soil nutrient balance. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 81(2), 103-112.

Brodie JF, Giordano AJ, Ambu L. 2015. Differential responses of large mammals to logging and edge effects. Mammalian Biology 80(1), 7-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mambio.2014.06.001

Burman S, Bhattacharya K, Mukherjee D, Chandra G. 2018. Antibacterial efficacy of leaf extracts of Combretum album Pers. against some pathogenic bacteria. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 18(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/ 10.1186/s12906-018-2271-0

Cantarello E, Lovegrove A, Orozumbekov A, Birch J, Brouwers N, Newton AC. 2014. Human impacts on forest biodiversity in protected Walnut-fruit forests in Kyrgyzstan. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 33(5), 454-481. https://doi.org/10.1080 /10549811.2014.901918

Carmona CP, Azcárate FM, Oteros-Rozas E, González JA, Peco B. 2013. Assessing the effects of seasonal grazing on holm oak regeneration: Implications for the conservation of Mediterranean dehesas. Biological Conservation 159, 240-247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.11.015

Chakeredza S, Hove L, Akinnifesi FK, Franzel S, Ajayi OC, Sileshi G. 2007. Managing fodder trees as a solution to human-livestock food conflicts and their contribution to income generation for smallholder farmers in southern Africa. Natural Resources Forum 31(4), 286-296. https://doi.org/

Chaturvedi RK, Raghubanshi AS, Singh JS. 2012. Effect of grazing and harvesting on diversity, recruitment and carbon accumulation of juvenile trees in tropical dry forests. Forest Ecology and Management 284, 152-162. https://doi.org/ 10.1016

Chaudhary A, Burivalova Z, Koh LP, Hellweg S. 2016. Impact of forest management on species richness: Global meta-analysis and economic trade-offs. Scientific Reports 6(23954), 1-10.

Cheng SH, Ahlroth S, Onder S, Shyamsundar P, Garside R, Kristjanson P, mcKinnonmc, Miller DC. 2017. What is the evidence for the contribution of forests to poverty alleviation. A systematic map protocol. Environmental Evidence 6(1), 1-11.

Dayamba SD, Tigabu M, Sawadogo L, Oden PC. 2008. Seed germination of herbaceous and woody species of the Sudanian savanna-woodland in response to heat shock and smoke. Forest Ecology and Management 256(3), 462-470. https://doi.org /10.1016/j.foreco.2008.04.051

de Glanville WA, Davis A, Allan KJ, Buza J, Claxton JR, Crump JA, Halliday JEB, Johnson PCD, Kibona TJ,mmbaga BT, Swai ES, Uzzell CB, Yoder J, Sharp J, Cleaveland S. 2020. Classification and characterisation of livestock production systems in northern Tanzania. PLOS ONE 15(12), e0229478. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.

Deafalla THH, Dafa-Alla D-AM, El-Abbasmm. 2014. The importance of non wood forest products for rural livelihoods: The case of South Kordofan State, Sudan. Science, Policy and Politics of Modern Agricultural System, January 1-11. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/978-94-007-7957-0

Degrande A, Schreckenberg K, Mbosso C, Anegbeh P, Okafor V, Kanmegne J. 2006. Farmers’ fruit tree-growing strategies in the humid forest zone of Cameroon and Nigeria. Agroforestry Systems 67(2), 159-175. https://doi.org/10.1007

Delvaux C, Sinsin B, Van Damme P. 2010. Impact of season, stem diameter and intensity of debarking on survival and bark re-growth pattern of medicinal tree species, Benin, West Africa. Biological Conservation 143(11), 2664-2671.

Derroire G, Tigabu M, Odén PC, Healey JR. 2016. The Effects of Established Trees on Woody Regeneration during Secondary Succession in Tropical Dry Forests. Biotropica 48(3), 290-300.

Dibaba A, Soromessa T, Kefalew A, Addi A. 2020. Woody species diversity, vegetation structure, and regeneration status of the Moist Afromontane Forest of Agama in Southwestern Ethiopia. International Journal of Ecology 1-10. https://doi.org /10.1155/2020/1629624

Domene M, Howe HF, Cruz-León E, Jiménez-Rolland R, Lozano-Huerta C, Martínez-Garza C. 2017. Seed to seedling transitions in successional habitats across a tropical landscape. Oikos.

Elevitch CR, Mazaroli ND, Ragone D. 2018. Agroforestry standards for regenerative agriculture. Sustainability (Switzerland), 10(9), 1-21. https:/ doi.org/10.3390/su10093337

Elfeel AA, Warrag EI. 2011. Uses and conservation status of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. (Hegleig Tree) in Sudan: Local people perspective. Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 3(4), 286-290.

Endale Y, Derero A, Argaw M, Muthuri C. 2017. Farmland tree species diversity and spatial distribution pattern in semi-arid East Shewa, Ethiopia. Forests Trees and Livelihoods 26(3), 199-214. https://doi.org/10.1080/14728028.26.1266971

Erdenebileg E, Wang C, Ye X, Cui Q, Du J, Huang Z, Liu G, Cornelissen JHC. 2020. Multiple abiotic and biotic drivers of long-term wood decomposition within and among species in the semi-arid inland dunes: A dual role for stem diameter. Functional Ecology 34(7), 1472-1484. https:// doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.13559

Esquivel MJ, Harvey CA, Finegan B, Casanoves F, Skarpe C. 2008. Effects of pasture management on the natural regeneration of neotropical trees. Journal of Applied Ecology 45(1), 371-380. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007..x

Ewunetu A, Simane B, Teferi E, Zaitchik BF. 2021. Land cover change in the Blue Nile River headwaters: Farmers perceptions, pressures and satellite-based mapping. Land 10(1), 1-25.

Fahmi MKM, Dafa-Alla DAM, Kanninen M, Luukkanen O. 2018. Impact of agroforestry parklands on crop yield and income generation: case study of rainfed farming in the semi-arid zone of Sudan. Agroforestry Systems 92(3), 785-800.

Fakhry AM, Khazzanmm, Aljedaani GS. 2020. Impact of disturbance on species diversity and composition of Cyperus conglomeratus plant community in southern Jeddah, Saudi. Journal of King Saud University Science 32(1), 600-605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2018.09.003

Franklin JF, Mitchell RJ, Palik BJ. 2007. Natural disturbance and stand development principles for ecological forestry. In General Technical Report.

Gaoue OG, Ticktin T. 2008. Impacts of bark and foliage harvest on Khaya senegalensis (Meliaceae) reproductive performance in Benin. Journal of Applied Ecology 45(1), 34-40. https://doi.org /10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01381.x

Gebeyehu G, Soromessa T, Bekele T, Teketay D. 2019. Species composition, stand structure, and regeneration status of tree species in dry Afromontane forests of Awi Zone, northwestern Ethiopia. Ecosystem Health and Sustainability 5(1), 199-215. https://doi.org/10.1080/209641291664938

Gebrehiwot K, Hundera K. 2014. Species composition, plant community structure and natural regeneration status of Belete moist evergreen montane forest, Oromia regional state, Southwestern Ethiopia. Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science 6(1), 97. https://doi.org/10.4314/mejs.v6i1.102417

Gebru BM, Wang SW, Kim SJ, Lee WK. 2019. Socio-ecological niche and factors affecting agroforestry practice adoption in different agroecologies of southern Tigray, Ethiopia. Sustainability (Switzerland) 11(13), 1-19. https:// doi.org /10.3390/su11133729

Gessesse B, Bewket W, Bräuning A. 2016. Determinants of farmers tree planting investment decisions as a degraded landscape management strategy in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Solid Earth 7(2), 639-650. https://doi.org/10.5194/se-7-639-2016

Ghanbari S, Sefidi K, Kern CC, Álvarez-Álvarez P. 2021. Population structure and regeneration status of woody plants in relation to the human Interventions, Arasbaran Biosphere Reserve, Iran. Forests 12(2), 191. https://doi.org/10.3390/

Githae EW, Gachene CKK, Njoka JT. 2011. Soil physicochemical properties under Acacia senegal varieties in the dryland areas of Kenya. African Journal of Plant Science 5(8), 475-482. http://www.academicjournals.org/ajps

González-Salazar C, Stephens CR, Marquet PA. 2013. Comparing the relative contributions of biotic and abiotic factors as mediators of species’ distributions. Ecological Modelling 248, 57-70.

Gorgens EB, Nunes MH, Jackson T, Coomes D, Keller M, Reis CR, Valbuena R, Rosette J, de Almeida DRA, Gimenez B, Cantinho R, Motta AZ, Assis M, de Souza Pereira FR, Spanner G, Higuchi N, Ometto JP. 2021. Resource availability and disturbance shape maximum tree height across the Amazon. Global Change Biology 27(1), 177-189. https://doi.org

Guedje NM, Tchamou N, Lejoly J. 2016. Tree response to bark harvest: the case of a medicinal species, Garcinia lucida as source of raw materials for plant-based drug development. Journal of Applied Biosciences 99(1), 9476. https://doi.org/10.4314

Gustafsson L, Baker SC, Bauhus J, Beese WJ, Brodie A, Kouki J, Lindenmayer DB, Lhmus A, Pastur GM, Messier C, Neyland M, Palik B, Sverdrup-Thygeson A, Volney WJA, Wayne A, Franklin JF. 2012. Retention forestry to maintain multifunctional forests: A world perspective. BioScience. https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2012.62.7.6

Guzzo CD, De Carvalho LB, Giancotti PRF, Alves PLC, Gonçalves ECP, Martins JVF. 2014. Impact of the timing and duration of weed control on the establishment of a rubber tree plantation. Anais Da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 86(1), 495-504.

Haarmeyer DH, Schumann K, Bernhardt-Römermann M, Wittig R, Thiombiano A, Hahn K. 2013. Human impact on population structure and fruit production of the socio-economically important tree Lannea microcarpa in Burkina Faso. Agroforestry Systems 87(6), 1363-1375. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-013-9644-7

Hammond ME, Pokorný R, Okae-Anti D, Gyedu A, Obeng IO. 2021. The composition and diversity of natural regeneration of tree species in gaps under different intensities of forest disturbance. Journal of Forestry Research 0123456789. https:// doi.org /10.1007/s11676-020-01269-6

Hanief M, Bidalia A, Meena A, Rao KS. 2016. Natural regeneration dynamics of dominant tree species along an altitudinal gradient in three different forest covers of Darhal watershed in north western Himalaya (Kashmir), India. Tropical Plant Research 3(2), 253-262.

Hasoba AMM, Siddig AAH, Yagoub YE. 2020. Exploring tree diversity and stand structure of savanna woodlands in southeastern Sudan. Journal of Arid Land 12(4), 609-617. https://doi.org/10.1007 /

Hassan TT, Mohammed EMI, Magid TDA. 2022. Exploring the current status of forest stock in the areas bordering Dinder Biosphere Reserve, Sudan. Journal of Forestry and Natural Resources 1(1), 11-24.

Hofhansl F, Chacón-Madrigal E, Fuchslueger L, Jenking D, Morera-Beita A, Plutzar C, Silla F, Andersen KM, Buchs DM, Dullinger S, Fiedler K, Franklin O, Hietz P, Huber W, Quesada CA, Rammig A, Schrodt F, Vincent AG, Weissenhofer A, Wanek W. 2020. Climatic and edaphic controls over tropical forest diversity and vegetation carbon storage. Scientific Reports 10(1), 1-11.

Ibrahim EM, Hassan TT. 2015. Factors affecting natural regeneration and distribution of trees species in El-Nour natural forest reserve. Journal of Natural Resources & Environmental Studies 3(3), 16-21.

Ibrahim Elmugheira Paity B, Hassan T, Idris E, Yousif T. 2018. Effect of tree species, tree variables and topography on CO2 concentration in Badous riverine forest reserve- Blue Nile, Sudan 5(1), 1-12.

Ibrahim Elmugheira Osman E. 2014. Diameter at breast height-crown width prediction models for Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Guill & Perr and Combretum hartmannianum Schweinf. Journal of Forest Products & Industries 3(4), 191-197.

Ibrahim Elmugheira Osman E, Idris E, Yousif T. 2015. Linear and Non-Linear Regression Equations for Estimating the Crown Diameter of Three Sudanese Edible Trees. Journal of Forest Products & Industries 4(2), 44-52.

Idrissa B, Soumana I, Issiaka Y, Karimou A, Mahamane A, Mahamane S, Weber J. 2018. Trend and Structure of Populations of Balanites aegyptiaca in Parkland Agroforestsin Western Niger. Annual Research & Review in Biology 22(4), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2018/38650

Ihwagi FW, Chira RM, Kironchi G, Vollrath F, Douglas-Hamilton I. 2012. Rainfall pattern and nutrient content influences on African elephants debarking behaviour in Samburu and Buffalo Springs National Reserves, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 50(2), 152-159. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-

Jayakumar R, Nair KKN. 2013. Species diversity and tree regeneration patterns in Tropical Forests of the Western Ghats, India. ISRN Ecology 2013, 1-14.

Ji Y, Ranjan R, Truong C. 2017. Determinants of illegal logging in Indonesia: An empirical analysis for the period 1996–2010. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 37(2), 197-220. https://doi.org/10.1080

Jurgensen MF, Harvey AE, Graham RT, Page-Dumroese DS, Tonn JR, Larsen MJ, Jain TB. 1997. Impacts of timber harvesting on soil organic matter, nitrogen, productivity, and health of Inland northwest forests. Forest Science 43(2), 234-251.

Kikoti I,mLigo C. 2015. Impacts of livestock grazing on plant species composition in montane forests on the northern slope of Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services and Management 11(2), 114-127. https://doi.org/10.1080/21513732.2015179

Kikoti I,mLigo C, Kilemo D. 2015. The Impact of Grazing on Plant Natural Regeneration in Northern Slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Open Journal of Ecology 05(06), 266-273. https://doi.org /10.4236/oje.2015.56021

Kimaro J, Lulandala L. 2013. Human influences on tree diversity and composition of a coastal forest ecosystem: The case of Ngumburuni forest reserve, Rufiji, Tanzania. International Journal of Forestry Research 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/305874

Kingazi N, Petro R, Mbwambo JR, Munishi LK. 2020. Performance of Pinus patula in areas invaded by Acacia mearnsii in Sao Hill forest plantation, Southern Tanzania. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1080/10549811.22

Kochare T, Tamir B, Kechero Y. 2018. Palatability and animal preferences of plants in small and fragmented land holdings: The case of Wolayta Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Agricultural Research & Technology: Open Access Journal 14(3). https:// doi.org /10.19080/artoaj.2018.14.555922

Kosmas C, Detsis V, Karamesouti M, Kounalaki K, Vassiliou P, Salvati L. 2015. Exploring long-term impact of grazing management on land degradation in the socio-ecological system of Asteroussia Mountains, Greece. Land 4(3), 541-559. https://doi.org/10.3390/land4030541

Krzic M, Newman RF, Trethewey C, Bulmer C, Chapman BK. 2006. Cattle grazing effects on plant species composition and soil compaction on rehabilitated forest landings in central interior British Columbia. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 61(3), 137-144.

Kutnar L, Nagel TA, Kermavnar J. 2019. Effects of disturbance on understory vegetation across slovenian forest ecosystems. Forests 10(11), 1-16.

Lacerda AEB, Kellermann B. 2019. What is the Long-Term Effect of Bamboo Dominance on Adult Trees in the Araucaria Forest. A Comparative Analysis between Two Successional Stages in Southern Brazil. Diversity 11(9), 165. https://doi.org

Lempesi A, Eleftheriadou A, Delivasi Z, Psyllidou A, Korakis G, Kyriazopoulos AP. 2017. Effects of grazing intensity on the regeneration of woody species in an oak woodland. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 45(2), 597-601. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha45210908

Ligate EJ, Wu C, Chen C. 2019. Investigation of tropical coastal forest regeneration after farming and livestock grazing exclusion. Journal of Forestry Research 30(5), 1873-1884. https://doi.org/10.1007

Lindenmayer DB, Laurance WF. 2017. The ecology, distribution, conservation and management of large old trees. Biological Reviews 92(3), 1434-1458. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12290

Lugusa KO. 2015. Fodder Production as an Adaptation Strategy in the Drylands: A Case Study of Producer Groups in Baringo County, Kenya BY. Metrologia 53(5), 1-116. https://doi.org/10.13140

Mahgoub AAM. 2014. Changes in Vegetation Cover and Impacts of Human Population in Dinder National Park , Sudan During the Period from 1972 to 2013. In A Thesis submitted to the Sudan Academy of Sciences in fulfillment of the requirements for Doctor of Philosophy in Wildlife sciences. Sudan Academy of Science (SAS).

Maleko D, Ng W-T, Msalya G, Mwilawa A, Pasape L, Mtei K. 2018. Seasonal Variations of Fodder Resources and Utilization Practices among Smallholder Dairy Farmers in Western Usambara Highlands, Tanzania: Implications for Sustainability. Tropical Animal Health and Production.

Mao P, Han G, Wang G, Yu J, Shao H. 2014. Effects of age and stand density of mother trees on early Pinus thunbergii seedling establishment in the Coastal Zone, China. Scientific World Journal 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/468036

Marcussi JC. 2016. The Brazilian Amazon Timber Industry and the International Mechanisms of Timber Trade Control- Combating Illegal Logging and Associated Trade [Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University]. http://digitalcommons.pace.edu /lawdissertations/21

Marone D, Poirier V, Coyea M, Olivier A, Munson AD. 2017. Carbon storage in agroforestry systems in the semi-arid zone of Niayes, Senegal. Agroforestry Systems 91(5), 941-954. https:// doi.org/ 10.1007 /s10457-016-9969-0

Masuku MB, Xaba B. 2013. Factors Affecting the Productivity and Profitability of Vegetables Production in Swaziland. Journal of Agricultural Studies 1(2), 37. https://doi.org/10.5296 /jas.v1i2.

Maua JO, Tsingalia HM, Cheboiwo J, Odee D. 2020. Population structure and regeneration status of woody species in a remnant tropical forest: A case study of South Nandi forest, Kenya. Global Ecology and Conservation 21, e00820. https://doi.org /10.1016 /j.gecco.2019.e00820

Missanjo E, Ndalowa D, Malinga D. 2015. Stand age and diameter class effect on seed production of Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon grown in Malawi. Scholars Academic Journal of Biosciences 3(2B), 173-177.

Mohammed ANE, Hashim IM. 2015. Illegal and patrolling activities in Dinder National Park from 1959-2010. Journal of Natural Resources & Environmental Studies 6456(11), 22-32.

Mohammed EMI, Elhag AMH, Ndakidemi PA, Treydte AC. 2021. Anthropogenic pressure on tree species diversity, composition, and growth of Balanites aegyptiaca in Dinder Biosphere Reserve, Sudan. Plants 10(483), 1-18.

Mohammed EMI, Hamed AME, Ndakidemi PA, Treydte AC. 2021. Illegal harvesting threatens fruit production and seedling recruitment of Balanites aegyptiaca in Dinder Biosphere Reserve, Sudan. Global Ecology and Conservation 29, e01732. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2021.e01732

Mohammed EMI, Hamid EAM, Ndakidemi PA, Treydte AC. 2022. The stocking density and regeneration status of Balanites aegyptiaca in Dinder Biosphere Reserve, Sudan. Trees, Forests and People 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tfp.2022.100259

Mohammed EMI, Hammed AME, Minnick TJ, Ndakidemi PA, Treydte AC. 2021. Livestock browsing threatens the survival of Balanites aegyptiaca seedlings and saplings in Dinder Biosphere Reserve, Sudan. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1080 /10549811.

Mohammed EMI, Hassan TT, Idris EA, Abdel-Magid TD. 2021. Tree population structure, diversity, regeneration status, and potential disturbances in Abu Gadaf natural reserved forest, Sudan. Environmental Challenges 5. https://doi.org /10.1016/j.envc.2021.100366

Mwakosya J,mLigo C. 2014. The impacts of anthropogenic activities on the vegetation communities and structure in the western part of Rungwe forest reserve, Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Science 40(1), 60-78.

Nacoulma BMI, Lykke AM, Traoré S, Sinsin B, Thiombiano A. 2016. Impact of bark and foliage harvesting on fruit production of the multipurpose tree Afzelia africana in Burkina Faso (West Africa). Agroforestry Systems 91(3), 565-576. https:// doi.org/ 10.1007/s10457-016-9960-9

Naidoo G, Naidoo Y, Achar P. 2010. Responses of the mangroves Avicennia marina and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza to oil contamination. Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 205(5), 357-362. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.flora.2009.12.033

Neya T, Neya O, Abunyewa AA. 2019. Agroforestry parkland profiles in three climatic zones of Burkina Faso. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 12(5), 2119. https://doi.org /10.4314/ijbcs.v12i5.14

Nieminen K, Blomster T, Helariutta Y, Mähönen AP. 2015. Vascular Cambium Development. The Arabidopsis Book 13, e0177. https://doi.org /10.1199/tab.0177

Nndwammbi M, Ligavha-Mbelengwa MH, Anokwuru CP, Ramaite IDI. 2018. The effects of seasonal debarking on physical structure, polyphenolic content and antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Sclerocarya birrea in the Nylsvley nature reserve. South African Journal of Botany 118(2018), 138-143. https://doi.org/ 10.1016 /j.sajb.2018.06.018

Nobre CA, Sampaio G, Borma LS, Castilla-Rubio JC, Silva JS, Cardoso M. 2016. Land-use and climate change risks in the amazon and the need of a novel sustainable development paradigm. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(39), 10759-10768. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1605516113

Omar G, Muhammad I. 2016. Comparative study of soil physico-chemical properties under Acacia senegal in three different plantations in Maifari, Jigawa state, Nigeria. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences 8(2), 111-116. https://doi.org/ 10.4314/bajopas.v8i2.19

Osem Y, Fogel T, Moshe Y, Ashkenazi M, Brant S. 2017. Understory structure and function following release from cattle grazing and overstory thinning in Mediterranean conifer plantations. Annals of Forest Science 74(1). https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s13595-017-0622-5

Osman EMH, Idris EZA. 2012. Species Dynamics and Potential Disturbances in El Nour Natural Forest Reserve, Sudan. Journal of Forest Products & Industries 1(2), 10-20.

Ouédraogo S, Bondé L, Ouédraogo O, Ouédraogo A, Thiombiano A, Boussim IJ. 2019. To what extent do tree size, climate and land use influence the fruit production of Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Delile in tropical areas (Burkina Faso). International Journal of Fruit Science 20(3), 282-299. https://doi.org/10.1080/15538362019.1619216

Owusu R, Ndzifon J, Moyo F. 2021. Land Use Policy Community-based Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR): Determinants and policy implications in Tanzania. Land Use Policy 109, 105664.

Paulo JA, Tomé M. 2017. Does debarking intensity during the first cork extraction affect future cork thickness? Annals of Forest Science 74(4), 1-9.

Samant SS, Singh M, Lal M, Pant S. 2007. Diversity, distribution and prioritization of fodder species for conservation in Kullu District, Northwestern Himalaya, India. Journal of Mountain Science, 4(3), 259-274. https://doi.org/10.1007/621

Scholten T, Goebes P, Kuhn P, Seitz S, Assmann T, Bauhus J, Bruelheide H, Buscot F, Erfmeier A, Fischer M, Hartle W, He JS, Ma K, Niklaus PA, Scherer-Lorenzen M, Schmid, B, Shi X, Song Z, Von Oheimb G, Schmidt K. 2017. On the combined effect of soil fertility and topography on tree growth in subtropical forest ecosystems’a study from SE China. Journal of Plant Ecology 10(1), 111-127. https://doi.org/10.1093 /jpe

Singh S, Malik ZA, Sharma CM. 2016. Tree species richness, diversity, and regeneration status in different oak (Quercus spp.) dominated forests of Garhwal Himalaya, India. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity 9(3), 293-300. https://doi.org/10.1016

Sukhbaatar G, Baatarbileg N, Battulga P, Batsaikhan G, Khishigjargal M, Batchuluun T, Gradel A. 2019. Which selective logging intensity is most suitable for the maintenance of soil properties and the promotion of natural regeneration in highly continental scots pine forests. Results 19 years after harvest operations in Mongolia. Forests 10(141), 1-21.

Suleiman MS, Wasonga VO, Mbau JS, Suleiman A, Elhadi YA. 2017. Non-timber forest products and their contribution to households income around Falgore Game Reserve in Kano, Nigeria. Ecological Processes 6(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/ s13717-017-0090-8

Tetemke BA, Birhane E, Rannestadmm, Eid T. 2019. Allometric models for predicting aboveground biomass of trees in the dry afromontane forests of Northern Ethiopia. Forests 10(12), 1-15. https:// doi.org/10.3390/F10121114

Thom D, Seidl R. 2016. Natural disturbance impacts on ecosystem services and biodiversity in temperate and boreal forests. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 91(3), 760-781. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12193

Treydte AC, Heitkönig IMA, Prins HHT, Ludwig F. 2007. Trees improve grass quality for herbivores in African savannas. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. https://doi.org /10.1016/j.ppees.2007.03.001

Tsegu E. 2019. The role of Faidherbia albida tree species in parkland agroforestry and its management in Ethiopia. Journal of Horticulture and Forestry 11(3), 42-47. https://doi.org/10.5897/jhf2018.0570

Vieira DLM, Scariot A, Holl KD. 2007. Effects of habitat, cattle grazing and selective logging on seedling survival and growth in dry forests of Central Brazil: Short communications. Biotropica 39(2), 269-274. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2006.x

Wang S, Fan J, Li Y, Huang L. 2019. Effects of grazing exclusion on biomass growth and species diversity among various grassland types of the Tibetan Plateau. Sustainability (Switzerland) 11(6).

Wang Y, Yu J, Xiao L, Zhong Z, Wang Q, Wang W. 2020. Dominant Species Abundance, Vertical Structure and Plant Diversity Response to Nature Forest Protection in Northeastern China: Conservation effects and implications. Forests 11(3).

Zeng Q, Liu Y, Xiao L, Huang Y. 2017. How fencing affects the soil quality and plant biomass in the grassland of the loess plateau. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14(10). https://doi.org/10.3390/ ijerph1117

Zhang P, Cui Z, Liu X, Xu D. 2022. Above‐Ground Biomass and Nutrient Accumulation in Ten Eucalyptus Clones in Leizhou Peninsula, Southern China. Forests 13(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/f130