Children’s environmental tobacco smoke exposure and its association with parental socio-economic status in Lahore Pakistan

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Research Paper 01/03/2021
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Children’s environmental tobacco smoke exposure and its association with parental socio-economic status in Lahore Pakistan

Laila Shahzad, Ejaz Hussain Qureshi, Amin U Khan, Hamid Mukhtar, Faiza Sharif, Muhammad Umar Hayyat, Asma Mansoor
Int. J. Biosci.18( 3), 30-38, March 2021.
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Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is a widespread pollutant despite the growing awareness of its adverse effects on human health. The present study examined the factors associated with children’s (aged 8–13 years) Tobacco Smoke (TS) exposure living under different socio-economic conditions in Lahore, Pakistan through a semi-structured questionnaire. Urine and saliva samples were collected from exposed and non-exposed children, and cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine was analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC flow rate was 1mg/ml and the retention time of cotinine was found to be 3.4 min. A total of 300 children were interviewed; out of which, 81.3% were living with an active smoker. In children exposed to TS, redness of eyes 55.7%, cough 68%, running nose 62.3%, wheezing 24.7% and chest tightness 16% were found as the symptoms of Respiratory tract infections (RTI). Cotinine was found in urine samples range 158 to191 ng/ml as compared to saliva with a range of 142 to 191 ng/ml. No significant difference was found in the cotinine levels among children of different SECs. Results of the study showed that children’s exposure to ETS remains a major public health concern, requiring immediate steps to control this menace.


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