Int. J. Biosci.16(5), 131-144, May 2020
Citrus is the most valuable fruit all over the world as well as Pakistan due to its taste, nutritional and medicinal qualities. All the citrus producing regions are facing threat due to a soil borne water loving pathogen Phytophthora species. Gummosis is the major disease which destroying the backbone of citrus industry. Several Phytophthora species was responsible for the citrus gummosis globally and leads to substantial yield losses annually. The infected tree shows decline symptom in combination with chlorosis of leaves, twigs dieback, discolored or poor colored fruits, wilting of tips and leaves withering. The infected twigs show gummosis, browning of the cortex, defoliation and desiccation. Symptoms are clearly seen on the above ground parts near the soil. Cracks and cankers are visible on the barks, branches and trunks and exude gum. Branches give a bleeding appearance. As it is a soil borne pathogen, so the symptoms are observed from the baseline to upward on the tree from main to secondary branches. While the taproots and crowns necrosis were observed with the increase severity of the infection expand necrotic lesions and the results showed tree declining and death. Many identification methods and control strategies are reviewed with more comprehensive management to use Phytophthora-free nursery, resistant rootstocks and economical phytochemical fungicides for the best management of citrus gummosis disease.
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