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Research Paper | October 1, 2018

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Clinical and immunohistochemical correlates of goitre versus hypoxia-inducible factors: an inferential hospital-based case-control study from Iraq

Mohammed H. Assi, Samia A. Eleiwe, Basem Sh. Ahmed, Ahmed Al-Imam

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Int. J. Biosci.13(4), 387-395, October 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/13.4.387-395


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Goitre, an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland, represents one of the most common endocrine disorders encountered in Iraqi patients. Several pathologic conditions, including thyroid malignancies, are correlated with the expression of hypoxia-inducible factors. Those are transcription factors that become activated in response to hypoxia. Our study will attempt to explore those factors in patients with goitre. The study is a hospital-based case-control in design. Individuals were allocated into cases (n=43) of individuals underwent a thyroidectomy procedures for goitre, and controls (n=25) who has conducted a total laryngectomy procedure for conditions unrelated to the thyroid gland. Histological samples were collected and examined via immunohistochemistry for hypoxia-inducible factors specifically HIF-1 and HIF-2. These were quantified and statistically tested with other parameters including age, gender, and the existence of clinical toxicity. Patients with goitre had significantly higher levels of HIF-1 and HIF-2 compared to controls (p-value<0.001). Clinically-toxic patients had substantially higher levels of both HIF-1 and HIF-2 than non-toxic patients (p=0.019, p=0.072). Patients, especially clinically-toxic ones, had notably more elevated levels of HIF-1 and especially when they grew older compared to non-toxic patients. Besides, the levels of HIFs appear to be rising in positive correlation with each other. Although our study has a high level-of-evidence, it may have some limitations. Nevertheless, it represents the first retrospective case-control study from Iraq in connection with the investigation of hypoxia as a cellular-biochemical event in patients from the Iraqi population.


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Clinical and immunohistochemical correlates of goitre versus hypoxia-inducible factors: an inferential hospital-based case-control study from Iraq

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