Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | October 1, 2019

| Download

Community awareness on fluoride contaminant sources: a case study at Mount Meru slopes in Northern Tanzania

Lucia Joseph, Kelvin Mtei, Liliane Passape, Neema Kassima

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.15(4), 254-265, October 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/15.4.254-265


IJB 2019 [Generate Certificate]


A study was conducted around the slopes of Mount Meru in Arumeru district of Arusha region at Ngarenanyuki ward, to update the awareness of the potential routes of human exposure to unacceptable levels of fluoride. Long term consumption of fluorine contaminated water and food, in addition to the use of fluoridated products, increases fluoride accumulation in the body. A cross-sectional, multi-phase sample design, in-depth structured questionnaires, informant interviews, and group discussions were carried out. Women aged between 15-45 years were involved. Participants identified water used for domestic purposes was the leading (68.63%) route of fluoride contaminant. Findings revealed that the majority (70.6%) of the participants were not aware of the potential sources of fluoride contaminants such as grown food crops/vegetables and fluoridated products. In addition, most (84.93%) of the respondents were using fluoridated toothpaste and children were not assisted or supervised as they use it which could lead to swallowing of the paste and increase the accumulation of fluoride in the body. Most (77 %) of the participants reported that their children had brown teeth enamel and use tap water as their primary source of domestic and drinking water. There were neither household’s fluoride management methods nor alternative domestic water sources identified by participants at the household level. This study recommends an in-depth study to evaluate fluoride levels in all potential routes of contamination, to guide management of dental and skeletal fluorosis in the community. Interventions to reduce fluoride contamination in this endemic area are necessary to combat health risks associated with their exposure.


Copyright © 2019
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Community awareness on fluoride contaminant sources: a case study at Mount Meru slopes in Northern Tanzania

Adekola O, Bashir A, Kasimu M. 2015.Physico-chemical characteristics of borehole water quality in GassolTaraba State, Nigeria. Environmental Science and Technology 9(2), 143-154. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJST2014.1794.

Adimalla N, Venkatayogi S. 2017. Mechanism of fluoride enrichment in groundwater of hard rock aquifers in Medak, Telangana State, South India. Environmental Earth Sciences 76(1), 45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12665-016-6362-2.

Adimalla N, Venkatayogi S. 2018. Geochemical characterization and evaluation of groundwater suitability for domestic and agricultural utility in a semi-arid region of Basara, Telangana State, South India. Applied Water Science 8(1), 44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13201-018-0682-1.

Adimalla N, Li P, Venkatayogi S. 2018. Hydrogeochemical evaluation of groundwater 1uality for drinking and irrigation purposes and integrated interpretation with water quality index studies. Environmental Processes 5(2), 363-383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12403-018-0288-8.

Aghaei M, Derakhshani R, Raoof M, Dehghani M, Mahvi H. 2015. Effect of fluoride in drinking water on birth height and weight: An ecological study in Kerman Province, Zarand County, Iran.The research report on Fluoride 48(2), 160-168.

Asawa K. 2015. Association of temporomandibular joint signs & symptoms with dental fluorosis and skeletal manifestations in endemic fluoride areas of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan. Clinical and Diagnostic Research 9, 18-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2015/15807.6958.

Bhagavatula P, Levy MS, Broffit B, Weber-Gasparoni K, Warren J. 2016. Timing of fluoride intake and dental fluorosis on late-erupting permanent teeth. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 44(1), 32-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdoe.12187.

Bashash M, Thomas D, Hu H, Martinez-Mier E. 2017. Prenatal fluoride exposure and cognitive outcomes in children at 4 and 6-12 years of age in Mexico. Environmental Health Perspective 125(9), 97-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP655.

Chen Y, Yan W, Hui X. 2017. Treatment and Prevention of Skeletal Fluorosis. Journal of Biomedical Environmental Science 30(2), 147-149. http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2017.020.

Choi A. 2015. Association of lifetime exposure to fluoride and cognitive functions in Chinese children: A pilot study.  Neuro-toxicology and Teratology 47, 96-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2014.11.001.

Craig L, Lutz A, Berry K, Yang W. 2015. Recommendations for fluoride limits in drinking water based on estimated daily fluoride intake in the Upper East Region, Ghana.   Science of the Total Environment 53(2), 127-137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.05.126.

Das K, Mondal NK. 2016. Dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride concentration as a reflection of fluoride exposure and its impact on IQ level and BMI of children of Laxmisagar, Simlapal Block of Bankura District, W.B., India. Journal of Environmental Monitoring & Assessment 188(4), 218.

Erik P, Ogawa H. 2016. Prevention of dental caries through the use of fluoride the WHO approach. Community Dental Health 33, 66–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1922/CDH_Petersen03.

Ferreira P, Aparecido J, Veloso C, Campos G, Moura M, Silva M. 2018. Is the fluoride intake by diet and toothpaste in children living in the tropical semi-arid city safe?. Brazilian oral research 32, 1806-8324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1807-3107bor-2018.vol32.0026

Firempong CK, Nsiah D, Awunyo VJ,  Dongsogo J. 2013. Soluble fluoride levels in drinking water: A major risk factor of dental fluorosis among children in the Bongo community of Ghana. Ghana Medical Journal 47, 16-23.

Ghiglieri G, Balia R, Oggiano G, Pittalis D. 2010. Prospecting for safe (low fluoride) groundwater in the Eastern African Rift. Arumeru District (Northern Tanzania). Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 14, 1081- http://dx.doi.org/1091.doi.org/10.5194/hess-14-1081.

Gupta A. 2019. Metabolism of Minerals.  Journal of Comprehensive Biochemistry for Dentistry.  Springer, Singapore 473-493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-1035-5-18.

Isah H, Mohammed A. 2014. Environmental distribution of fluoride in drinking waters of Kaltungo area, North-Eastern Nigeria American. Environmental Protection 19-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.s.2014030602.13.

Jetti R. 2016. Protective effect of ascorbic acid and ginkgo Biloba against learning and memory deficits caused by fluoride. Toxicology and Industrial Health, 32(1), 183-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0748233713498460.

Kaseva M. 2006. Contribution of trona (Magadi) into excessive fluorosis a case study in Maji ya Chai ward, northern Tanzania. Science of the Total Environment 366, 92-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.08.049.

Kanduti D, Sterbenk P, Artnik B. 2016. Fluoride: A review of use and effects on heal. Material socio-medica 28(2), 133–137. http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/msm.2016.28.133-137.

Khan S. 2015. Relationship between dental fluorosis and intelligence quotient of school-going children in and around Lucknow District. Clinical and Diagnostic Research 9(11), 10-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-6879.1000278.

King L, Machunda R, Ijumbaa J. 2016. Regeneration of fluoride-saturated bone char by means of wood ash and heat. Research Report Fluoride 49, 549-559.

Kundu H. 2015. Effects of fluoride in drinking water on children’s intelligence in high and low-fluoride areas of Delhi. Association of Public Health Dentistry, 13(2), 116-121.

Makungu J, Muzuka A. 2014. Application of soil composition for inferring fluoride variability in volcanic areas of Mt. Meru, Tanzania. Environmental Monitoring and Analysis 5(2), 231-238. http://dx.doi.org/10.11648/j.ijema.20140205.11.

Marin L, Cury J, Tenuta L, Castellanos J, Martignon S. 2016. Higher fluorosis severity makes enamel less resistant to demineralization. Caries Research 50(4), 407-413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000447270.

Malango J, Makoba E, Muzuka A. 2017. Fluoride levels in surface and groundwater in Africa: A review. Water Science and Engineering 3, 1-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.11648/j.ajwse.20170301.11.

Mesram N, Nagapuri K, Banala R, Nalagon C, Kanati P. 2017. Quercetin treatment against NF induced oxidative stress-related neuronal and learning changes in developing rats.  King SaudUniversity-Sciences 29(2), 221-229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2016.04.002.

Mcharo AJ. 1986. The occurrence and possibilities of fluoride removal in Arusha Area, Tanzania. MSc Thesis. The Tampere University of Technology.

Mohammadi AA, Yousef M, Mahvi AH. 2017. Fluoride concentration level in a rural area in Poldasht city and daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption with temperature. Data in Brief 13, 312–315. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2017.05.045.

Mondal D. 2016. Inferring the fluoride hydro-geochemistry and effects of consuming fluoride contaminated drinking water on human health in some endemic areas of Birbhum District West Bengal. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 38(2), 557-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-015-9743-7.

Mustofa S, Chandravanshi BS, Zewge F. 2014. Levels of fluoride in staple cereals and legumes produced in selected areas of Ethiopia. SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science 37(1), 43-52.

Mjengera H. 1988. Excess fluoride in potable water in Tanzania and defluoridation technology with emphasis on the use of polyaluminium chloride and magnesite. Unpublished report, University of Tampere.

Mjengera H. 2001.Optimization of bone char material for defluoridation of drinking water. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Dar es Salaam.

Narsimha A, Sudershan V. 2018. Drinking water pollution with respective of fluoride in the semi-arid region of Basara, Nirmal District, Telangana State, India. Data in Brief 16, 752-757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2017.11.087.

Narsimha A. 2018. Elevated fluoride concentration levels in rural villages of Siddipet, Telangana State, South India. Data in Brief 16, 693–699. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2017.11.088.

Narsimha A. 2018.Contamination of fluoride in groundwater and its effect on human health: A case study in hard rock aquifers of Siddipet, Telangana State, India. Applied Water Science 7(5), 2501-2512. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13201-016-0441-0.

Narsimha A, Rajitha S. 2018. Evaluation of groundwater contamination for fluoride and nitrate in the semi-arid region of Nirmal Province, South India: A special emphasis on human health risk assessment. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 10, 1-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2018.1460579.

Rango T, Vengosh M, Jeuland R, Tekle-Haimanot E, Weinthal J, Kravchenko C, Paul  P. 2014. Fluoride exposure from groundwater as reflected by urinary fluoride and children’s dental fluorosis in the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley.Science of the Total Environment 496, 188-197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.07.048.

Reddy R, Reddy B. 2015.Vitamin A deficiency: An oxidative stress marker in sodium fluoride (NaF) induced oxidative damage in developing rat brain. Development Neurosciences 47, 298-303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2015.08.010.

Rugg-Gunn JA. 2018. Guidelines for Fluoride Intake—Are They Appropriate?. Advances in Dental Research 29(2), 142-143.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022034517750588

Sami E, Vichayayanrat T, Sativipsawee P. 2016. Caries with dental fluorosis and oral health behavior among 12-year schoolchildren in moderate-fluoride drinking water community in Quetta, Pakistan. Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan 26(9), 744-7.

Said M, Machunda R.  2014. Defluoridation of water supplies using coconut shells activated carbon: Batchstudies. Science and Research 3, 2327-31.

Sajidu S, Masumbu F, Fabiano E, Ngongondo C. 2014. Drinking water quality and identification of fluorotic areas in Machinga, Malawi. Science and Technology 8, 42-56.

Sapbamrer R. 2018. Pesticide use, poisoning, knowledge and unsafe occupational practices in Thailand. New solutions: Journal of environmental and occupational health policy 28(2), 283-302.

Sebastian S, Sunitha S. 2015. A cross-section study to assess the intelligent quotient (IQ) of school children aged 10-12 years in villages of Mysore district. Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry 33(4), 307-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-4388.165682.

Shalini B, Sharma J. 2015. Beneficial effects of Emblica Officinalis on fluoride-induced toxicity brain biochemical indexes and learning-memory in rats. Toxicology 22(1), 35-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-6580.172254.

Slade GD, Grider WB, Maas WR, Sanders AE. 2018.Water fluoridation and dental caries in u.s. children and adolescents. American Association of Dental Research 97(10), 1122-1128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022034518774331.

Singano J. 1991. Defluoridation of drinking water by using magnesia and polyaluminium chloride. MSc Thesis. Tampere University.

Tanzania Bureau of Standards. 2005. National Environmental Standards Compendium: Tanzania 789. Drinking (potable) Water Specification 74.

Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics. 2012. Population and housing census – DPGTanzania Retrieved from. www.tzdpg.or.tz/fileadmin/documents/…/2012_Census_General_Report.pdf.

Tegegne B, Chandravanshi BS, Zewge F. 2013. Fluoride levels in commercially available rice in Ethiopia. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 27(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v27i2.3.

Valdez L, Lopez D, Cervantes M. 2017. In utero exposure fluoride and cognitive development delay in infants. Neurotoxicology, 59, 65-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016ij.neuro.2016.12.011.

Wikipedia. 2018. Meru District geographical areas. In Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 19, 43. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arumeru_District

World Health Organization. 2010. Inadequate or excess fluoride: a major public health concern. Retrieved from. https://www.who.int/ipcs/features/fluoride.pdf

World Health Organization. 2011. Nitrate and nitrite in drinking-water: Background document for development of WHO Guideline for Drinking-water Quality. Retrieved. https://www.who.int/watersanitationhealth/…/nitrate-nitrite-background-jan17.pdf

World Health Organization. 2014. Basic methods for assessment of renal fluoride excretion in community prevention programs for oral health.  Retrieved from https://www.who.int/oral_health/publications/9789241548700/en/.pdf

World Health Organization. 2015. Guideline: Sugars intake for adults and children. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/guidelines/sugarsintake/en/.pdf

World Health Organization. 2016. Global Oral Health Data Bank. Retrieved from www.who.int/oral-health/databases/malmo/en.pdf

Ying L, Anne M, Tianqui G, Yanguo S, Zohoori F. 2018. Fluoride concentrations in a range of ready-to-drink beverages consumed in Heilongjiang Province, north-east China. Nutrition and Health 23(1), 25–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0260106016685726.

Yu X, Chen J, Li Y, Liu H. 2015. Threshold effects of moderately excessive fluoride exposure on children’s health: A potential association between dental fluorosis and loss of excellent intelligence. Environmental International 118, 116-124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.05.042.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background