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Comparative analysis of genetic diversity among three species of the freshwater fish genus Garra (Osteichthys: Cyprinidae) using restriction fragment length polymorphism

M Raja, P Malaiammal, S Nandagopal, M Muralidharan, M Arunachalam

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Int. J. Biosci.2(3), 88-96, March 2012

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Abstract

The genetic variation in three species of the freshwater cyprinid Garra was studied using the traditional morphometric, meristic and Restriction fragment length polymorphism as molecular tool analysis. Samples were collected from their respective geographic locations of southern Western Ghats. Based on the 46 morphometric and 18 meristic characters employed during this study 23 characters showed variation among the three species and hence were utilized for the PCA ordination. The principal component analysis was performed using 15 morphometric and 8 meristic characters of which 12 components were extracted and the first three axes showed eigenvalues >1 and they explained the variance about 81.46 % of the total variance. The genome size of the species Garra mullya ranged from 3.8-6.15 µg/mg, Garra kalakadensis ranged from 3.25- 6.3 µg/mg and Garra gotyla stenorhynchus ranged from 3.9- 6.15 µg/mg. Based on the electrophorogram, different bands of fragments in each lane and band volume were analyzed, According to Hind III enzyme the electrophorogram analysis showed maximum fragment length polymorphism in Garra mullya which had four fragments and the total volume of bands was 12.582 nmoles. Based on the Eco R1 enzyme digestion the electrophorogram analysis revealed that the maximum fragment length polymorphism in Garra mullya composed of four fragments and the total volume of bands in the entire lane was 10.5965 nmoles. Based on the Hind III and Eco R1 restriction enzymes, the cluster analysis clearly showed that the Garra mullya and Garra kalakadensis grouped together while Garra gotyla stenorhynchus with distinct geneticdistance did not cluster with the other two species. Garra gotyla stenorhynchus can also be distinguished morphologically from Garra mullya and Garra kalakadensis.

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Comparative analysis of genetic diversity among three species of the freshwater fish genus Garra (Osteichthys: Cyprinidae) using restriction fragment length polymorphism

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