Comparative foraging behavior of eastern honeybee, (Apis cerana F) and western honeybee, (Apis mellifera carnica) in pollinating pear and apricot flowers in Taleghan, Iran
Admassu A. 2003. Botanical inventory and phenology in relation to foraging behavior of the Cape honeybees (Apis Mellifera Capensis) at a site in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Unpublished MSc Thesis, Rhodes University, South Africa.
Aizen MA, Harder LD. 2009. The global stock of domesticated honey bees is growing slower than agricultural demand for pollination. Current Biology 19, 915–918.
Anonymous. 2014. Statistical data of Alborz province. See http://salnameh.sci.org.ir
Biesmeijer JC, Roberts SPM, Reemer M, Ohlemüller R, Edwards M. 2006. Parallel declines in pollinators and insect-pollinated plants in Britain and the Netherlands. Science 313, 351–354.
Blüthgen N, Klein AM. 2011. Functional complementarity and specialization: the role of biodiversity in plant–pollinator interactions. Basic and Applied Ecology 12, 282-291.
Bosch J, Kemp WP. 2000. Development and emergence of the orchard pollinator Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Environmental Entomology 29, 8-13.
Bradbear N, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, et al. 2009. Bees and their role in forest livelihoods: a guide to the services provided by bees and the sustainable harvesting, processing and marketing of their products. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
Brittain C, Kremen C, Klein AM. 2012. Biodiversity buffers pollination from changes in environmental conditions. Global Change Biology 19, 540-547.
Choi SY, Lee ML. 1988. Studies on the diurnal flight activities of honeybees on peach flowers. Korean journal of Apiculture 3, 81-89.
Dreller C, Page RE, Fondrk MK. 1999. Regulation of pollen foraging in honeybee colonies: effects of young brood, stored pollen, and empty space. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 45, 227-233.
Dreller C, Tarpy DR. 2000. Perception of the pollen need by foragers in a honeybee colony. Animal Behaviour 59, 91-96.
Dulta PC, Verma LR. 1989. Biochemical studies on flight muscles of the genus Apis. Journal of Apicultural Research 28, 136-141.
Eckert JE. 1933. The flight range of the honeybees. Journal of Agricultural Research 47, 257-258.
Erdtmann G. 1969. Handbook of palynology. Copenhagen, Munksgaard.
Fewell JH, Page RE. 1993. Genotypic variation in foraging responses to environmental stimuli by honey bees, Apis mellifera. Experientia 49, 1106-1112.
Fewell JH, Winston ML. 1992. Colony state and regulation of pollen foraging in the honeybee, Apis mellifera L. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 30, 387-393.
Fewell JH, Winston ML. 1996. Regulation of nectar collection in relation to honey storage levels by honey bees, Apis mellifera. BehavioralEcology 7, 286-291.
Free JB. 1960. The behavior of honeybees visiting flowers of fruit trees. Journal of Animal Ecology 29, 385-395.
Free JB. 1993. Insect pollination of crops (second edition). Academic Press, London, UK.
Gallai N, Salles JM, Settele J, Vaissière BE. 2008. Economic valuation of the vulnerability of world agriculture confronted with pollinator decline. Ecological. Economics 68, 810-821.
Ghaderzadeh H, Fattahi N. 2014. Economic effect of pollinating of honey bees on increasing of agricultural crops “A case of Kurdistan provinceˮ. Proceeding of the 8th Iranian Honeybee Seminar, The Association Bee Research Institute of Karaj, Iran (Series of Articles honey bee) 29, 30 January 2014. pp. 212-214. (InPersian)
Hellmich RL, Kulincevic JM, Rothenbuhler WC. 1985. Selection for high and low pollen-hoarding honey bees. Journal of Heredity 76, 155-158.
Hermann M. 2010. Einsatzmöglichkeiten und Haltung von Mauerbienen (Osmia sp.) in intensive Obstkulturen. Obstbau 2, 66-69. (In German)
Hoehn P, Tscharntke T, Tylianakis JM, Steffan-Dewenter I. 2008. Functional group diversity of bee pollinators increases crop yield. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 275, 2283-2291.
Hosseini A, Jahangiri S, Sahragard A. 2014. Foraging behavior of honeybees (Apis mellifera) at different hours of the day and its relation to temperature and humidity. Proceeding of the 8th Iranian Honeybee Seminar, The Association Bee Research Institute of Karaj, Iran (Series of Articles honey bee) 29, 30 January 2014. pp. 65-67 (In Persian).
Kendall DA, Solomon ME. 1973. Quantities of pollen on the bodies of insects visiting apple blossom. Journal of Applied Ecology 10, 627-634.
Kevan PG, Clark EA, Thomas VG. 2008. Insect Pollinators and sustainable agriculture. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 5, 13-22. Cambridge University Press.
Kimiaei M, Tahmasebi GH, Poorjavad N. 2014. Study of foraging and pollen collecting behavior in the Iranian high and low honey producing bee. Proceeding of the 8th Iranian Honeybee Seminar, The Association Bee Research Institute of Karaj, Iran (Series of Articles honey bee) 29, 30 January 2014, pp. 7-8. (InPersian)
Kishani Farahani H, Malekzadegan A, Tabadkani SM. 2010. The way appointment of attractiveness of different plant species for honeybees in rages of Karaj suburbs. Proceeding of the 7th Iranian Honeybee Seminar, The Association Bee Research Institute of Karaj, Iran (Series of Articles honey bee) 11, 12 January 2011.P: 92-93. (In Persian)
Lavin MD. 1959. Distribution patterns of young and experienced honeybees foraging on alfalfa. Journal of Economic Entomology 52, 969-971.
Mann GS, Singh G. 1983. Activity and abundance of pollinators of plum in Ludhiana (Punjab). American bee journal 123, 595-610.
Marquez J, Bosch J, Vicens N. 1994. Pollens collected by wild and managed populations of the potential orchard pollinator Osmia cornuta (Latr) (Hym Megachilidae). Journal of Applied Entomology 117, 353-359.
Mattu VK, Verma LR. 1980. Comparative morphometric studies on introduced European bee (Apis mellifera L) and (Apis cerana indica F) in Himachal Pradesh. Proceeding of international congress on Apiculture in Tropical Climate, New Dehli. P: 262-277.
Mattu VK, Verma LR. 1983. Comparative morphometric studies on Indian honeybee of north-west Himalayas 1. Tongue and antenna. Journal of Apicultural Research 22, 79-85.
Mattu VK, Verma LR. 1984a. Comparative morphometric studies on Indian honeybee of north-west Himalayas 2. Wings. Journal of Apicultural Research 23, 3-10.
Mattu VK, Verma LR. 1984b. Comparative morphometric studies on Indian honeybee of north-west Himalayas 3. Hindleg, tergites and sternites. Journal of Apicultural Research 23, 117-122.
Mattu VK, Verma. 1984c. Morphometric studies on Indian honeybee, (Apis cerana F.) Effect of seasonal variations. Apidologie 15, 63-74.
Mcgregor SE. 1976. Insect pollination of cultivated crop plants. Agricultural Handbook. No. 496. A. R. S., U.S.D.A., Washington D.C., p. 411.
Morse RA, Calderone NW. 2000. The value of honey bees as pollinators of US crops in 2000. Bee Culture 128, 1-15.
Page RE, Fondrk MK, Hunt GJ, Guzman-Novoa E, Humphries MA, Nguyen K, Greene AS. 2000. Genetic dissection of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) foraging behavior. Journal of Heredity 91, 474-479.
Page RE, Fondrk MK. 1995. The effects of colony level selection on the social organization of honey bee (Apis mellifera L) colonies – colony level components of pollen hoarding. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 36, 135–144.
Pankiw T. 2003. Directional change in a suite of foraging behaviors in tropical and temperate evolved honey bees (Apis mellifera L). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 54, 458-464.
Partap U, Shukla AN, Verma LR. 1996. Comparative foraging behavior of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera in Pollinating peach and Plum Flowers in Kathmandu valley, Nepal.
Partap U, Verma LR. 1994. Pollination of radish by (Apis cerana). Journal of Apicultural Research 33, 237-241.
Radmacher S, Strohm E. 2010. Factors affecting offspring body size in the solitary bee Osmia bicornis (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). Apidologie 41, 169-177.
Ruttner F. 1992. Naturgeschichte der Honigbienen. Ehrenwirth Verlag Gmb H, München.
Sahli HF, Conner JK. 2007. Visitation, effectiveness, and efficiency of 15 genera of visitors to wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum (Brassicaceae). American Journal of Botany 94, 203-209.
Sargent RD, Ackerly DD. 2008. Plant–pollinator interactions and the assembly of plant communities. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23, 123-130.
Schindler M, Peters B. 2011. Mason bees Osmia bicornis and Osmia cornuta as suitable orchard pollinators? Erwerbs-Obstbau 52, 111-116. (In German)
Sheffield CS, Westby SM, Smith RF, Kevan PG. 2008b. Potential of big leaf lupine for building and sustaining Osmia lignaria populations for pollination of apple. Canadian Entomologist 140, 589-599.
Simon Potts. 2006. Centre for Agri-Environment Research, University of Reading in “Bees and flowers decline in step”, by Richard Black, Environment correspondent, 20 July (2006), BBC News website. See http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/5201218.stm
Southwick EE, Southwick JRL. 1992. Estimating the economic value of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) as agricultural pollinators in the United States. Journal of Economic Entomology 85, 621-633.
Tahmasbi Z, Tahmasbi GH, Osfoori R, Ebadi R, Babaei M, Tarang A, Saighalani R, Mohammad Nameghi A. 2011. Foraging and pollen collecting behavior of worker bees (the traits connected to honey production) in high and low production honeybee colonies. Proceeding of the 1st National Festival of Honey and Society Health Iranian Honeybee Seminar, The Association Bee Research Institute of Karaj, Iran (Series of Articles honey bee) 5-11 November 2011. pp. 34-37. (InPersian)
Thorp RW. 1979. Structural, behavioral and physiological adaptations of bees (Apoidea) for collecting pollen. Annals of The Missouri Botanical Garden 66, 788–812.
Torchio PF. 1976. Use of Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Megachilidae) as a pollinator in an apple and prune orchard. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 49, 475-482.
Verma LR, Dulta PC. 1986. Comparative foraging behavior of (Apis cerana) and (Apis mellifera) in pollinating apple flowers. Journal of Apicultural Research 25, 197-201.
Verma LR, Partap U. 1994. Foraging behavior of (Apis cerana) on cauliflower and cabbages and its impact on seed production. Journal of Apicultural Research 33, 231-236.
Waddington KD, Nelson M, Page RE. 1998. Effects of pollen quality and genotype on the dance of foraging honey bees. Animal Behaviour 56, 35–39.
Westrich P. 1989. Die Wildbienen Baden-Württembergs. Ulmer, Stuttgart (In German).
Yang GH. 2005. Harm of introducing the western honeybee (Apis mellifera L) to the Chinese honeybee (Apis cerana F) and its ecological impact. Acta Entomologica Sinica 48, 401-406. (In Chinese)