J. Bio. Env. Sci.2(5), 50-60, May 2012
Deforestation of tropical forests through timber harvest has been described as one of the major causes of global warming and carbon emission. Bamboo conservation presents an alternative strategy for ameliorating the effect of forest tree loss in the tropics. The purpose of this study was to compare the distribution, harvesting and regeneration of B. vulgaris in harvested and non-harvested sites. It also aimed at assessing the effect of seasonal changes on the regeneration levels of B. vulgaris in harvested and non-harvested sites. The two sites were located in the Owabi wildlife sanctuary and theadjacent agricultural farmlands in the Atwima district of Ghana where B. vulgaris is in abundance. Using adaptive sampling method, 25 and 35 plots measuring 50x50m were installed in the sanctuary and on the agricultural farmlands, respectively. The population and regenerative capacity of bamboo culms in each site were determined by counting the number of shoots, young, mature, dead and harvested culms in each clump in the sampled plots. The results showed that two out of three (67.9%) of the culms on the farmlands were harvested with the number of harvested culms averaged 64.0±14.12% per clump, while mature and dead culms in the sanctuary averaged 32.0±13.96% and 26.5±20.28%, respectively. Site (harvested versus non-harvested) did not have a significant effect on the regeneration of juvenile culms, while the effects of seasonal changes and the interaction between the sites and seasonal changes were significant, with the bamboo on the farmlands responding more positively to regeneration of juvenile culms (11.7%) than those in the sanctuary (3.6%). The average ratio of juvenile culm production to the number of mature culms per clump before rainy season was 3:10 compared with 8:10 at the end of the rainy season, suggesting that the presence of mature culms could potentially stimulate the regeneration of juvenile culms. Despite the ability of mature culms to stimulate culm regeneration, the contribution of non-harvested site to regeneration was far less compared to that of harvested site. It seems reasonable to conclude that optimum regeneration of culms could be achieved if older culms are harvested.
Bih F. 2006. Assessment methods for non-timber forest products in off-reserve forests. Case study of Goaso district Ghana. PhD dissertation. University of Freiburg, Germany.
Bitariho R., Mosango M. 2005. Abundance, distribution, utilisation and conservation of Sinarundinaria alpine in Bwindi and Mgahinga Forest national Parks, South West Uganda. Ethnobotany Research and Applications. 3, 191-200.
Brown J.A. 2003. Designing an efficient adaptive cluster sample. Environmental and Ecological Statistics. 10, 95-105.
Christman M.C. 1997. Efficiency of some sampling designs for spatially clustered populations. Environmetrics, 8, 145-167.
Department of Game and Wildlife 2002. Consolidated wildlife laws of Ghana (2ed.). Accra, Department of Game and Wildlife.
Embaye K. 2000. The Indigenous bamboo forests of Ethiopia: An overview. Ambio. 29, 518-521.
Embaye K, Weih M, Ledin S, Christerson L. 2005. Biomass and nutrient distribution in a highland bamboo forest in southwest Ethiopia: implications for management. Forest Ecology and Management. 204, 159-169.
FAO 2009. Strategy for Forests and Forestry Challenges Ahead. Report. Rome. Italy.
Forestry Commission 2010. Owabi Wildlife Sanctuary: A haven of Birds, butterflies and mona monkeys. Accra: Forestry Commission.
Hakim L, Nakagoshi N, Isagi Y. 2002. Conservation ecology of Gigantochloa manggong: an endemic bamboo at Java, Indonesia. Journal of International Development and cooperation. 9, 1-16.
Hall JB. Swaine MD. 1981. Distribution and ecology of plants in tropical rain forest. Junk, The Hague.
Irvine FR. 1961. Woody plants of Ghana. London, Oxford University Press. p. 787.
Li R, Werger MJA, de Kroon HJ, Zhong ZC. 2000. Interactions between shoot age structure, nutrient availability, and physiological integration in the giant bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens). Plant Biol. 2, 437-446.
Obiri BD, Oteng-Amoako AA. 2007. Towards a sustainable development of the bamboo industry in Ghana. Ghana Journal of Forestry. 21, 14-27.
Oduro W, Aduse-Poku K. 2005. Preliminary assessment of fruit-feeding butterfly communities in the Owabi wildlife sanctuary. Ghana Journal of Forestry. 17 & 18, 9-19.
Sharma YML. 1980. Bamboos in the Asia-pacific region. In: Lessard, G. and Chouinard, A. (1980). Bamboo research in Asia: proceedings of a workshop held in Singapore, 28-30 May 1980.
Sheil D, Ducay M, Ssali F, Ngubwage JM, van Heist M. 2012. Bamboo for people, Mounting gorillas, and golden monkeys: Evaluating harvest and conservation trade-offs and synergies in the Virunga Volcanoes. Forest Ecology and Management. 267,163-171.
Singh AN, Singh JS. 1999. Biomass, net primary production and impact of bamboo plantation on soil redevelopment in a dry tropical region. Forest Ecology and Management. 119, 195-207.
Taylor AH, Zisheng Q. 1987. Culm dynamics and dry matter production of bamboos in the Wolong and Tangiiache Giant Panda reserves, Sichuan, China. J. Appl. Ecol. 24, 419-433.
Taylor AH, Qin Z. 1993. Structure and dynamics of bamboos in the Wolong Natural Reserve. Chin. Am. J. Bot. 80, 375-384.
Thompson SK, Seber GAF. 1996. Adaptive Sampling. Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York. p. 265.
Tomar MS. 1963. Growth behaviour and new culm production in Dendrocalamus strictus and a rational approach towards management. Indian Forester. 89, 410-417.
UICN/PACO 2010. Parks and reserves of Ghana: Management effectiveness assessment of protected areas. Ouagadougou, BF:UICN/PACO.
Vazquez-Lopez JM, Vibrans H, Garcia-Moya E, Valdez-Hernandez JI, Romero-Manzanares A, Cuevas-Guzman R. 2004. Effects of harvesting on the structure of a neotropical woody bamboo otatea: Guaduinae populations. Interciencia: 29, 207-211.
Wang W, Franklin SB, Ren Y, Ouellette JR. 2006. Growth of bamboo Fargesia qinlingensis and regeneration of trees in a mixed hardwood-conifer forest in the Qinling Mountains, China. Forest Ecology and Management, 234, 107-115.
Yen TM, Lee JS. 2011. Comparing above-ground carbon sequestration between moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla) and China fir (Cunningghamia lanceolata) forest based on the allometric model. Forest Ecology and Management. 261, 995-1002.
Yen TM, Ji YJ, Lee JS. 2010. Estimating biomass production and carbon storage for a fast-growing makino bamboo (Phyllostachys makinoi) plant on the diameter distribution model. Forest Ecology and Management. 260, 230-344.
Zar JH. 1984. Biostatistical Analysis (2nd ed.) Prentice-Hall. N.J.
Zhou F. 2009. The 20th Century in retrospect for bamboo trade and Prospects for the 21st Century. Journal of Bamboo Research. No. 4.