Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | April 1, 2015

| Download 2

Comparing the mental health and self-efficacy of soldiers with extra duty and soldiers without extra duty in an Iranian military center

Vahid Donyavi, Rasoul Soleimani Najafabadi, Arsia Taghva, Amir Mohsen Rahnejat

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.6(4), 482-490, April 2015


JBES 2015 [Generate Certificate]


Mental health and self-efficacy are among the factors and variables that play an important role in maintaining the health and efficacy of the military forces. This study was conducted in an Iranian military center in 2015 aiming at comparing the self-efficacy and mental health of soldiers with extra duty and soldiers without extra duty. This is a descriptive research with causal-comparative design. The desired sample size consisted of 50 soldiers with extra duty and 50 soldiers without extra duty selected by multistage random sampling method. The data collection tool included Symptom checklist- 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and general self-efficacy questionnaire with 17 questions prepared. Data were analyzed using independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. The results showed a significant difference between the two groups of soldiers in all subscales of mental health and self-efficacy (P <0.05). These results also indicated that soldiers with extra duty had lower mental health and self-efficacy than those without extra duty. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the enforcement of extra duty law, resulting in a longer period of military service, on Iranian soldiers, can negatively affect the mental health and self-efficacy of such soldiers.


Copyright © 2015
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Comparing the mental health and self-efficacy of soldiers with extra duty and soldiers without extra duty in an Iranian military center

Ahmadi K, Karambakhsh AR, Mehrazmay AR, Salesi M, NajafiManesh Z. 2014. The pattern of drug abuse among soldiers. Journal of Military Medicine 15(4), 235-243.

Asgharzadeh Golzar G. 2000. Investigation about the causes of soldiers’ crimes of 5 Nasr division. Master thesis, Command and Staff College of Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution, Tehran.

Bandura  A.  1997.  Self  efficacy:  The  exercise  of control. New York: Freeman.

Black DW, Carney CP, Peloso PM, Woolson RF, Schwartz DA, Voelker MD, Barrett DH, Doebbeling BN. 2004. Gulf war veterans with anxiety: prevalence, comorbidity, and risk factors. Epidemiology 15(2), 135-142.

Buckman JE, Sundin J, Greene T, Fear NT, Dandeker C, Greenberg N, Wessely S. 2011. The impact of deployment length on the health and well-being of military personnel: a systematic review of the literature. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 68(1), 69-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oem.2009.054692

Curtis AJ. 2000. Health psychology. London: Routledge.

Dedic G, Kostic P. 2001. Causes of frustration in soldiers during the period of adaptation to the military environment. Vojnosanitetski Pregled 58(6), 621-630.

Dedic G. 2000. Defense mechanisms in soldiers during the period of adaptation to the military environment. Vojnosanitetski Pregled 57(4), 393-401.

Derogatis LR, Lipman RS, Covi L. 1973. SCL-90: an outpatient psychiatric rating scale-preliminary report. Psychopharmacolgy Bulletin 9(1), 13-28.

Derogatis LR, Riekels K, Rock AF. 1976. The SCL-90 and MMPI, a-step in validation of a new self report scale. British Journal of Psychiatry 128, 280-289.

Dunn R, Williams R, Kemp V, Patel D, Greenberg N. 2015. Systematic review: deployment length and the mental health of diplomats. Occupational Medicine 65(1), 32-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqu142

Duran-Stanton AM. 2008. An investigation of the relationship between perceived self-efficacy and performance of U.S. Army combat lifesaver students. PhD thesis, Capella University, Minneapolis.

Farsi Z, Jabari Morouei M, Ebadi A. 2006. General health assessment of Army soldiers seen in a military medical outpatient clinic in Tehran. Journal of Iranian Army University of Medical Sciences 4(3), 924-930.

Fathi-Ashtiani A, Sajjadechi A. 2005. Psychological assessment of the soldiers of material and logistics command of a military unit. Journal of Military Medicine 7(2), 153-159.

Gahm GA, Lucenko BA. 2008. Screening soldiers in outpatient care for mental health concerns. Military Medicine 173(1), 17-24.

Galor S, Hentschel U. 2012. Problem-solving tendencies, coping styles, and self-efficacy among Israeli veterans diagnosed with PTSD and depression. Journal of Loss and Trauma 17(6), 522-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2012.674440

Ghorbani GA, Isfahani AA, Naghizadeh MM. 2008. Evaluatgni effect of additional in-service on health of soldiers. Journal of Iranian Army University of Medical Sciences 5(4), 1457-1460.

Haerem T, Kuvaas B, Bakken BT, Karlsen T. 2011. Do military decision makers behave as predicted by prospect theory? Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 24(5), 482-497.

Hoge CW, Lesikar SE, Guevara R, Lange J, Brundage JF, EngelJr CC, Messer SC, Orman DT. 2002. Mental disorders among U.S. military personnelin the 1990s: association with high levels of healthcare utilization and early military attrition. American Journal of Psychiatry 159(9), 1576-1583.

Jex SM, Bliese PD, Buzzell S, Primeau J. 2001. The impact of self-efficacy on stressor–strain relations: Coping style as an explanatory mechanism. Journal of Applied Psychology 86(3), 401-409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.3.401

Keramati H, Shahraray M. 2004. Examining the role of perceived self-efficacy in mathematical Performance. Journal of Educational Innovation 4(1), 103-115.

Leon-Perez JM, Medina FJ, Munduate L. 2011. Effects of self-efficacy on objective outcomes in transactions and dispute. International Journal of Conflict Management 22(2), 170-189.

Maslach C, Jackson SE. 1993. Manual of the Maslach burnoutinventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Maslach C. 2001. What have we learned about burnout and health? Psychol Health 16(5), 607-611. doi: 10.1080/08870440108405530.

Mazokopakis EE, Lachonikolis IG, Sgantzos MN, Polychronidis IE, Mavieas IG, Lionis CD. 2002. Mental distress and socio demographic variables: A study of Greek warship personnel. Military Medicine 167(11), 883-888.

Morales-Negron HR. 2008. Self-efficacy and state anxiety during mandatory combative training. Arshives of Budo 4, 26-31.

Morrow CE, Bryan CJ, Stephenson JA, Bryan AO, Haskell J, Staal M. 2013. Posttraumatic stress, depression, and insomnia among U.S. Air Force pararescuemen. Military Psychology 25(6), 568-576. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/mil0000021

Noorbala AA, Mohammad K, Bagheri Yazdi SA, Yasami MT. 2003. The Mental Health Status of Individuals Fifteen Years and Olderin the Islamic Republic of Iran. Hakim Research Journal 5(1), 1-10.

Rahnejat AM, Bahamin G, Sajjadian SR, Donyavi V. 2011. Epidemiological Study of Psychological Disorders in One of theunits Ground Military forces of Islamic Republic of Iran. Journal of Military Psychology 2(6), 27-36.

Rajabian SS. 2007. Investigatgni the relationship between psychiatric disorders and the duration of military service. Master Thesis, University of Medical Sciences of Iranian Army, Tehran.

Rezapour M. 1997. Standardization of SCL-90-R test on students of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. Master Thesis, University of Allameh Tabatabaei, Tehran.

Sadeghi Nasab A. 2010. A critic to the offenses criminal code of armed forces. Arak: Nevisandeh publication.

Samuels SM, Foster CA, Lindsay DR. 2010. Freefall, self-efficacy, and leading in dangerous contexts. Military Psychology 22(Suppl 1), 117-136.

Sherer M, Maddux JE, Mercandante B, Prentice-Dunn S, Jacobs B, Rogers RW. 1982. The self-efficacy scale: Construction and validation. Psychological Reports 51, 663-671.

Solberg OA, Laberg JC, Johnsen BH, Eid J. 2005. Predictors of self-efficacy in a Norwegian battalion prior to deployment in an international operation. Military Psychology 17(4), 299-314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327876mp1704_4

Strauser DR, Kets K, Keim J. 2002.Therelationship between self efficacy/locus of control and work personality. Journal of Rehabilitation 68, 20-27.

Tudor K. 1996. Mental health promotion: paradigms and practice. London: Routledge.

World Health Organization(WHO). 2001.World Health Report 2001- Mental health: New understanding,  new  hope.  Geneva:  World  Health Organization. Available at:http://www.who.int/whr/2001/en/index.html.

Zamorski  MA,  Rusu  C,  Garber  BG.  2014. Prevalence and correlates of mental health problems in  Canadian  forces  personnel  who  deployed  in support of the mission in Afghanistan: Findings from post  deployment  screenings,  2009-2012.Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 59(6), 319-326.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background