COVID-19: Outbreak, Advancements and Possibilities

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Review Paper 01/02/2022
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COVID-19: Outbreak, Advancements and Possibilities

Fahad Asim, Muhammad Sameer Ashaq, Humayun Riaz, Syed Atif Raza, Abdul Raheem Malik, Umer Farooq, Rana Khalid Mehmood, Syed Ali Faran, Muzammil Raza
Int. J. Biosci.20( 2), 210-228, February 2022.
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Abstract

Coronaviruses are diverse, positive-natured viruses containing RNA, which belong to a family Coronaviridae, that cause various diseases in humans, birds and several other wild animals, causing gastrointestinal, nervous system and respiratory tract infections. COVID-19 pandemic started from Wuhan in December 2019. It advanced to many other countries in a couple of weeks. Coronaviruses are RNA-containing viruses that vary in size from 27 to 32 kb. They are grouped into four genera, namely, alpha, beta, gamma and delta coronavirus targeting different hosts. Previously, six types of coronaviruses were identified to affect humans and produce respiratory tract infections, i.e., HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, and HKU1 that affect upper respiratory tract with mild infection while SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV affecting lower respiratory tract with severe infection, were identified leading to morbidity and mortality. The causative agent of COVID-19 is SARS-COV2. The virion is an enveloped particle. It contains a single RNA strand with 30,000 nucleotides. The most common clinical features of COVID-19 are respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurological, cardiovascular and hematological manifestations. Numerous laboratory tests have been developed for the significant diagnosis of COVID-19, such as RT-PCR, Serology, Radiography, and CT- imaging. This review also describes available treatment strategies to counter COVID-19.  The previous literature was thoroughly analyzed to design this review. To deal with this pandemic, further investigation about its treatment and genera is mandatory.

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