Curbing wildlife trade towards biodiversity conservation in Cabadbaran Watershed and Forest reserve in Caraga Region, Philippines

Paper Details

Research Paper 11/12/2023
Views (352) Download (17)

Curbing wildlife trade towards biodiversity conservation in Cabadbaran Watershed and Forest reserve in Caraga Region, Philippines

Raquel M. Balanay, Rowena P. Varela, Romell A. Seronay
J. Bio. Env. Sci.23( 6), 38-46, December 2023.
Certificate: JBES 2023 [Generate Certificate]


Wildlife trade is generally practiced in the uplands where economic activities are largely dependent on natural resources. The wildlife trade is mainly to supply the demands for exotic food, pets, and for business. To discourage wildlife trade, sustainable livelihood options are recognized to curb the practice. In the Cabadbaran Watershed and Forest Reserve, the landscape is basically forestlands, where wildlife abounds, therefore, illicit trade is rampant. However, aside from wildlife trade, agriculture is regarded as the major source of livelihood among the residents.  Abaca (Musa textilis Nee) production has been the major source of income for the residents and is recognized as a sustainable livelihood option in the site. Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) farming is another promising livelihood alternative since its production fits in with the criteria for sustainable livelihood identification.  Rainforestation is seen to be another viable livelihood alternative in the uplands since it is compatible with the needs, existing livelihoods, organization, social structure, gender differences and roles, and culture of the people. It is a technology developed utilizing the existing forests as a source of livelihood by integrating economic activities such as mushroom production, fruit tree growing, and ornamental gardening. The identified livelihood alternatives are recognized to improve the way of life in these areas. Moreover, hand-holding and mentoring from the academia, government and non-government organizations to promote sustainable development is viewed to heighten the awareness of the upland dwellers on wildlife conservation.


BSWM. 2018. Land Suitability Map for Cacao in the Province of Agusan Del Norte. Land Resources Evaluation and Suitability Assessment of Strategic Production Areas.

CSPL SEAMS. 2018. Socio-Economic Assessment and Monitoring Systems (SEAMS) of the Cabadbaran-Santiago Protected Landscape.

Department of Agriculture. 2016. Philippine Abaca Industry Roadmap 2018-2022.

Gregorio N, Herbohn J, Tripoli R, Pasa A. 2020. A local initiative to achieve global forest and landscape restoration challenge—Lessons learned from a community-based forest restoration project in Biliran province, Philippines. Forests 11(4), 475.

Hughes AC. 2021. Wildlife trade. Current Biology 31(19), R1218-R1224.

Hutler CP, Goltenboth F, Hanssler M. 2003.  Paths to sustainable development. Stuttgart, Germany, S. Hirzel Verlag.

Lacuna-Richman C. 2002. The socioeconomic significance of subsistence non-wood forest products in Leyte, Philippines. Environmental Conservation 29( 2), 253-262.

PENRO– Agusan del Norte National Greening Program (NGP) Accomplishment Report for CY 2015.

Robinson JE, Griffiths RA, Fraser IM, Raharimalala J, Roberts DL, St. John FAV. 2018. Supplying the wildlife trade as a livelihood strategy in a biodiversity hotspot. Ecology and Society 23(1). 13.

Roe D. 2008. Trading nature: a report, with case studies, on the contribution of wildlife trade management to sustainable livelihoods and the Millennium Development Goals.

Scheffers BR, Oliveira BF, Lamb I, Edwards DP. 2019. Global wildlife trade across the tree of life. Science 366(6461), 71-76.

UNODC. 2020. World Wildlife Crime Report: Trafficking in protected species. New York: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).