Cytological studies and karyotype analysis of Oreochromis niloticus L.

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/03/2013
Views (290) Download (7)

Cytological studies and karyotype analysis of Oreochromis niloticus L.

Lailatul Ferdaus, Md. Sarower-E-Mahfuj, A.K. Shakur Ahammad, Maruf Hossain Minar and Md. Mukhlesur Rahman Khan
Int. J. Biosci.3( 3), 83-91, March 2013.
Certificate: IJB 2013 [Generate Certificate]


The research reported herein consisted of chromosomal studies of Orechromis niloticus. Larvae of O. niloticus were collected from ‘Reliance Fish Hatchery’, Trisal, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Colchicine (0.05%) treated (2 h, 2.5 h and 3 h) time intervals of day-old larvae were observed under research microscope after hydrolysis (10% HCl), mordanting (2% iron alum) and staining with haematoxoylen. Colchicine treatment 2 h gave satisfactory results in respect of degree of contraction of chromosomes. Photomicrographs were taken from selected plates and then enlarged. From enlarged prints chromosome number 2n = 44 was counted. In the late prophase stage chromosomes were condensed, thicker and shorter and the exclusively contracted chromosomes which were unsuitable for measurement. Chromosomes of metaphase stages were observed and clearly identified in three plates and finally one best plate was selected for karyotype analysis. The long and short arm detected only 8 chromosomes which consisted of 4 metacentric, 3 suubmetacentric and 1 subtelecntric. Finally the prepared karyotype consisted of 2n = 4m + 3sm + 1st + 36t. Length of the measured chromosome varied from 0.7 to 3.1 µ. This study may provide the first knowledge of chromosome analysis of O. niloticus and basic information for its ploidy manipulation and sex reversal.


Ahmad QN, Britten EJ, Byth, DE. 1983. A quantitative method of karyotype analysis applied to the soybean, Glycine max. Cytologia 48, 879-892.

Al-Sabti K. 1991. Handbook of Genotoxic effects and fish chromosome. Ljubljana p. 97.

Alves AL. 2000. Analise da evolucao dos generos da subfamilia Hemipsilichthiinae (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes, Loricarridae) com base em caracteres cromossomicos e de DNA mitocondrial. MSc Thesis, Universidade de sao Paulo, faculdade demedicina de Ribeivao preto, 164.

Amemiya CT, Gold JR. 1988. Chromosomal NORs as taxonomic and Systematic characters in North American cyprinid fishes. Genetica 76, 81-90. DOI: 10.1007/BF00058806.

Artoni RF, Bertollo LAC. 2001. Trends in the karyotype evolution of Loricarridae fish (Siluriformes). Heriditas 134, 201-210. DOI: 10.1007/BF00058806.

Ballarin JD, Haller RD. 1982. The intensive culture of tilapia in tanks raceways and cages. Croon Heln Ltd. London, p. 265-266.

Boonphakdee C. 2005. Isolation, analysis and chromosomal mapping of genes related to sex determination in tilapia. PhD thesis, Stirling University, Scotland.

Cucchi C, Baruffaldi A. 1990. A new method for karyological studies in teleost fishes. Journal of Fish Biology 37, 71-75. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1990.tb 05928.

Datta S, Rahman MM, Haque MA, Islam MM, Mollah MFA. 2003. Chromosomal studies on Ompok pabda (Hamilton). Online Journal of Biological science 3(5), 460-465.

DoF. 2011. Jatiyo Matshapakha Sankalon 20 – 26th July. Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Government of People`s Republic of Bangladesh, Matshya Bhabon, Dhaka, p. 136.

Eknath AE. 1992. Genetic Improvement of Farmed Tilapia-GIFT Phase 1 Final Report. International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM). Metro Manila.

Eknath AE, Tayamen MM, Palada-de Vera MS, Danting JC, Reyes RA, Dionisio E, Capili JB, Bolivar HL, Abella TA, Circa AV, Bentsen HB, Gjerde B, Gjedrem T, Pullin RSV. 1993. Genetic improvement of farmed tilapias: the growth performance of eight strains of Oreochromis niloticus tested in different farm environments. Aquaculture 111, 171-188. DOI: 10.1016/0044-8486(93)90035-W.

Ezaz, MT, Harvey SC, Boonphakdee C, Teale AJ, McAndrew BJ, Penman DJ. 2004. Sex-linked AFLP markers in the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. Marine Biotechnology 6(5), 435-445. DOI: 10.1007/s10126-004-3004-6.

FSY, 2009. Fisheries Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh (25th edn). Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Fisheries and livestock, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, p. 12-53.

Griffin DK, Harvey SC, Campos-Ramos R, Ayling L-J, Bromage NR, Masabanda JR, Penman DJ. 2002. Early origins of the X and Y chromosomes: lessons from tilapia. Cytogenetics and Genome   Research 99, 157-163. DOI: 10.1159/000341887.

Gupta MV, Ahamed M, Bimbao AA, Lightfoot C. 1992. Socioeconomic impact and farmers’ assessment of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus culture in Bangladesh. International Center forLiving Aquatic Resources Management, Manila, Philippines. ICLARM Technical Report 35.Kirpichnikov, V.S. 1981. Genetic Bases of Fish Selection. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, p. 342.

Goudie CA, Shelton WL, Parker NC. 1986. Tissue distribution and elimination of radiolabelled methyl testosterone fed to sexually undifferentiated blue tilapia. Aquaculture 58, 215-226

Harvey SC, Boonphakdee C, Campos-Ramos R, Ezaz MT, Griffin DK, Bromage NR, Penman DJ. 2002. Analysis of repetitive DNA sequences in the sex chromosomes of Oreochromis niloticus. Cytogenetics and Genome Research (special issue on Sex Determination in Vertebrates) 101, 314-319.

Johnstone R, Macintosh DJ, Wright RS. 1983. Elimination of orally-administered 17-alpha methyltestosterone by Oreochromis mossambicus (tilapia) and Salmo gairdneri (rainbow trout) juveniles. Aquaculture 35, 249-257

Karayücel S, Karayücel I, Penman D, McAndrew, BJ. 2002. Production of androgenetic Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L.: Optimization of heat shock duration and application time to induce diploidy. Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh 54(4), 145-156.

Karayücel I, Tariq ME, Karayücel S, McAndrew BJ, Penman DJ. 2004. Evidence for two unlinked “sex reversal” loci in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis  niloticus,  and  for  linkage  of  one  of these to the autosomal red body colour gene. Aquaculture 234, 51-63.


Kirpichnikov VS. 1981. Genetic Bases of Fish Selection. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, p. 342.

Kornfield IL, Rette U, Richler C, Wahrman J. 1979. Biochemical difference among Cichlid fishes of the sea Galilae. Evolution 3, 1-14.

Lee W-J, Penman DJ, Kocher TD. 2003. Identification of a sex-determining region in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using bulk segregant analysis. Animal Genetics 34, 379-383.

Levan A, Fredga K, Sandberg AA. 1964. Nomenclature for centromeric position on chromosomes. Heredities 52, 201-220. DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-5223.1964. tb01953.x.

Lowe-McConnell RH. 1982. Tilapias in fish communities. In The biology and culture of tilapias, (R. S. V. Pullin and R. H. Lowe-McConnell, eds.), p. 83 – 113. ICLARM (International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management) Conference Pro-ceedings, vol. 7, Manila.

Macintosh DJ, Little DC. 1995. Brood stock management and fry production of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). In: N.R. Bromage and R. Roberts, (eds.). Brood fish Management and Egg and Larval Quality. Blackwell Science, Oxford, p. 277 – 320.

Maclean JL. 1984.  Tilapia-  the  aquatic  chicken. Environments ICLARM Newsletter, p. 12-17.

Mair GC, Abucay JS, Skibinski DOF, Abella TA, Beardmore JA. 1997. Genetic manipulation of sex ratio for the large-scale production of all-male tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 54, 396-404.

McAndrew BJ, Majumdar KC. 1988. Growth studies in juvenile tilapia using pure species, hormone treated and nine interspecific hybrids. Aquaculture and Fisheries  Management 20, 35-47. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2109.1989.tb00439.x.

Penman DJ, McAndrew BJ. 2000. Genetics for the Management and Improvement of Cultured Tilapias p. 227-266. In Tilapia: Biology and Exploitation. Beveridge and McAndrew (Eds) Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Pullin RSV, Bhukaswan T, Tonguthai K, MacLean JL. 1988. The second international symposium on tilapia in aquaculture. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 15, Bangkok and Manila, 623 p.

Sherwood SW and Patton JI. 1982. Genome evolution in pocket gophers (Genus, Thompmys). 11 variation in cellular DNA content. Chromosoma (Beri) 85, 111-114.

Sofy HI, Layla AM, Iman MKA. 2008. Karyotypic diversity of three tilapia species from Egypt. Nature and Science 6(1), 19-37. ISSN: 0740 – 1545.

Stickney PR, Hesby JH, McGeachinm RB, Isbell WA. 1979. Growth of Tilapia nilotica in ponds with differing histories of organic fertilization. Aquaculture 17, 189-194. DOI: 10.1016/0044-8486(79)90122-4.

Tan X, Jian GQ, Chen B, Chen L, Li X. 2004.        Karyological  analyses  on  redclaw  crayfish  Cherax quadricarinatus (Decapoda: Parastacidae). Aquaculture 234, 65-76, 0

Thorgaard GH, Disney JE. 1993. Chromosome preparation and analysis. Chapter, 6. p. 171-186.