Cytotoxicity of bark extracts from Aglaia loheri (Blanco) Merr. (Meliaceae) against human colorectal carcinoma cells (HCT116)

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Research Paper 01/04/2019
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Cytotoxicity of bark extracts from Aglaia loheri (Blanco) Merr. (Meliaceae) against human colorectal carcinoma cells (HCT116)

Norielyn N. Abalos, Sonia D. Jacinto
Int. J. Biosci.14( 4), 418-427, April 2019.
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Natural products, plant extracts or plant-derived chemicals have played a promising role in the treatment and prevention of cancer showing considerably less toxicity and lack the side effects of other chemotherapeutic agents. The cytotoxic activity of bark extracts from a Philippine native tree, Aglaia loheri, were tested against human colorectal cancer cell line HCT116 using 3-(4,5-dimethyl2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The methanolic crude extract was subjected to a bioassay guided solvent partitioning and fractionation by vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) and gravity column chromatography (GCC). The apoptotic effect of the most active fraction was investigated using JC-1 assay to determine mitochondrial membrane alteration and TUNEL assay to detect DNA fragmentation. A. loheri crude extract demonstrated very high cytotoxicity against HCT116 with IC50 value of 0.49±0.07µg/mL. The hexane (ALBH) and ethyl acetate (ALBEA) partitions and most of the VLC and GCC fractions showed high to moderate cytotoxicity. The GCC fraction ALBEA9.2 demonstrated very low IC50 value of 0.04±0.01µg/mL and showed high selectivity index (SI) of 8.72. Morphological examination of HCT116 cells treated with ALBEA9.2 showed loss of membrane integrity and loss of contact with neighboring cells, condensed cytoplasm and detachment from the substratum suggestive of apoptosis. Reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and the presence of genome fragmentation in treated cells confirmed the apoptosis-inducing effect of ALBEA9.2. The study indicates that bark extracts of A. loheri shows cytotoxic activity that is highly selective against HCT116 cell line. The findings suggest the potential of ALBEA9.2 as an anticancer agent by inducing apoptosis.


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