Determination of chemical composition, polyphenol contents, and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of three plants used in the management of malnutrition

Paper Details

Research Paper 10/11/2022
Views (551) Download (95)

Determination of chemical composition, polyphenol contents, and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of three plants used in the management of malnutrition

Amadou Ibrahim Halilou, Rabiou Abdou Mamane Ousseini, Bakasso Sahabi, Sabo Haoua, Mahamane Idi Issa Abdoulahi, Ikhiri Khalid, Hassimi Sadou
Int. J. Biosci.21( 5), 137-147, November 2022.
Certificate: IJB 2022 [Generate Certificate]


Guiera senegalensis (Combretaceae), Commiphora africana (Burseraceae), Schwenckia americana (Solanaceae) are plants used in traditional medicine against malnutrition. The objective of this study is to contribute to the valorisation of these three species used in the management of malnutrition in children aged 0 to 5 years in Niger. The chemical composition of the extracts of these plants was determined using standard methods. The contents of total polyphenols, total tannins and antioxidant activity were determined by the spectrophotometric method. The determination of total polyphenols on the extract of the bark of C. africana gave the highest content of 86.62±6.31 mg EAG/g. For total tannins, high levels were observed with the bark extract of C. africana (16.14±0.95 g/L). The determination of the reducing power showed the highest activity with the leaf extract of G. senegalensis (2±0.04 mmol EAA/g). The analysis of the overall chemical composition showed that the extract of G. senegalensis leaves is richer in proteins (11.38%) and lipids (4.02%). The highest carbohydrate content (72.47%) is observed in the bark extract of C. africana. For the overall ash content, the whole plant extract of S. americana has the highest ash content at 11.04%. Extract from the leaves of G. senegalensis gave the highest dry matter content (92.42%). These results could contribute to the formulation of fortified foods used to improve the nutritional status of children in particular and populations in general.


Abdoulahi MII, Habibou HH, Sanda A, Abdelkader NM, Chaibou M, Rahila HG, Sahabi B, Tidjani IA. 2022. Ethno Botanical, Pharmacology and Phytochemistry of widely used medicinal plants in Niger: A Review. Journal of Medicinal Plants 10(4), 46-60.

Abdoulahi MII, Sahabi B, Rahila HG, Habibou HH, Zeinabou HH, Tidjani IA, Kiendrebeogo M, Sadou H. 2020. Phenolics contents and antioxidant activity of six medicinal plants used in the treatment of dentition related ailments in Niger. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 9(4), 1816-1821.

Amadou I, Lawali S. 2022. Smart management of malnutrition using local foods: a sustainable initiative for developing countries. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systeme 6, 725536.

Amadou I, Ilagouma OAT, Oumarou HD, Balla A. 2021. Evaluation de l’état nutritionnel des enfants malnutris dans deux centres de santé de Tessaoua (Niger) après des aliments thérapeutiques.  Annale Africaine de. Médicine 14(2), e4124-e4132.

AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis of the AOAC. 15th Edition, association of official analytical chemists, Washington DC.

Bakasso S, Lamien-meda A, Lamienn CE, Kiendrebeogo M, Coulibaly AY,  Compaoré M, Meda NR, Nacoulma OG. 2013. ” In vitro” Inhibition of Acetyl Cholinesterase, Lipoxygenase, Xanthine Oxidase and Antibacterial Activities of Five” Indigofera”(Fabaceae) Aqueous Acetone Extracts from Burkina Faso. Current Research Journal Biologicals Sciences 5(3), 115-122.

Bate-Smith TS. 1965. Lloydia, (28), 313–331.

Chukwuma CC, Ikewuchi JC, Ekeke C, and Monanu MO. 2018. Phytoremediation of crude oil polluted agricultural soil using Schwenkia americana L. and Spermacoce ocymoides Burm. f. Methodology,

Dan Lamso N, Guéro Y, Tankari Dan-Badjo A, Tidjani AD, Ado Maman N, and Ambouta Jean Marie K. 2015. Effet des touffes de Guiera senegalensis (J.F. Gmel) sur la fertilité des sols dans la région de Maradi (Niger). Journal of Applied Biosciences 94, 8844–8857.

Dirar AI, Devkota HP. 2021. Ethnopharmacological uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of Guiera senegalensis JF Gmel. (Combretaceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 267, 113433.

Eriyamremu GE, Iorliam EB. 2018. Gastroprotective effect of tannin from Schwenkia americana against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer. International Journal Medicinal Biomedecine Research 7(1), 32-39.

Gayon PR, Street SE. 1966. Annales de Chimie, (48), 188 – 196.

Hamadou HH, Souley Kallo M, Maman Manzo L, Moussa I, Adamou R, Ikhiri K. 2018. Criblage phytochimique et dosage des polyphénols du Detarium microcarpumm Guill et Perr utilisé dans le traitement des maladies parasitaires au Niger. Afrique Sciences 14(5), 390-399.

Hinneburg I, Dorman HJD, Hiltunen R. 2006. Antioxidant activities of extracts from selected culinary herbs and spices. Food Chemistry 97, 122-129.

Moussa C, Nâg-Tiéro Meda R, Bakasso S, Vlase L, Kiendrebeogo M. 2016. Antioxidative, anti-inflammatory potentials and phytochemical profile of Commiphora africana (A. Rich.) Engl. (Burseraceae) and Loeseneriella africana (Willd.) (Celastraceae) stem leaves extracts. Asian. Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 6(8), 665–670.

Oguntibeju OO. 2018. Medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activities from selected countries and regions of Africa. Journal of Inflammation Research 11, 307.

Pousset JL.1998. Plantes médicinales africaines ; Utilisation Pratique. Ellipses, 156p. ISBN 2-7298-8918-3.

Sahabi B, Nafiou AIM, Maazou MS, Aichatou AM, Haoua SS. 2021. Etude ethnobotanique des plantes utilisées traditionnellement pour la prise du poids, la stimulation de l’appétit et contre la malnutrition dans les régions de Niamey et Tillabéri au Niger. Algetrien Journal Natural Product 9(2), 856-870.

Sidnell A, Greenstreet E. 2009. Infant nutrition–protein and its influence on growth rate. Nutrition Bulletin (34)4, 395- 400.

Thiombiano MS, Stefan D, Amadé O, Karen H, Georg Z. 2012. Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso. Vol. 65. Editions des Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques. Genève : Candollea-Boissiera, 391p. ISSN: 0373-2975.

UNICEF / WHO. 2019. World Bank Group Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates Key findings of the edition. Levels and trends in child malnutrition. WHO/NMH/NHD/19.20.

Waterhouse AL. 2002. Determination of total phenolics. Current Protocols in food Analytical Chemistry 6(1), I1-1.