Determination of lead and zinc in king mackerel (Scomberomorus guttatus Bloch & Schneider, 1801), Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson Lacepède, 1800) and Tiger-toothed Croaker (Otolithes ruber Bloch and Schneider, 1801) from Persian Gulf, Iran in 2001 and 2011

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/07/2014
Views (230) Download (6)

Determination of lead and zinc in king mackerel (Scomberomorus guttatus Bloch & Schneider, 1801), Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson Lacepède, 1800) and Tiger-toothed Croaker (Otolithes ruber Bloch and Schneider, 1801) from Persian Gulf, Iran in 2001 and 2011

Abolfazl Askary Sary, Mohammad Velayatzadeh
J. Bio. Env. Sci.5( 1), 322-329, July 2014.
Certificate: JBES 2014 [Generate Certificate]


The present study was carried out to investigate contamination of heavy metals Pb and Zn in liver and muscle of Scomberomorus guttatus, Scomberomorus commerson and Otolithes ruber from Persian Gulf, Iran, in 2001 and 2011. Heavy metal levels in fish samples were analyzed by Perkin Elmer 4100 Zl atomic absorption. The results show that the highest concentrations of Pb and Zn in the liver of Scomberomorus commerson and Scomberomorus guttatus were 0.96±0.03 (2001) and 213±7.35 (2001) mgkg-1dw and the lowest concentrations of Pb and Zn in the liver of Scomberomorus guttatus and muscle of Otolithes ruber were 0.28±0.04 (2001) and 4.66±0.36 (2011) mgkg-1dw. Concentrations of Zn and Pb in the liver and muscle of Scomberomorus commerson, Otolithes ruber and Scomberomorus guttatus have significant difference between 2001 and 2011 (P<0.05), except Pb in muscle of Scomberomorus commerson and in liver of Otolithes ruber (P≥0.05).


Abu Hilal AH, Ismail NS. 2008. Heavy Metals in Eleven Common Species of Fish from the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences 1, 13-18.

Agah H, Leermakers M, Elskens M, Fatemi SMR, Baeyens W. 2009. Accumulation of trace metals in the muscle and liver tissues of five species from the Persian Gulf. Environment Monitoring and Assessment 157, 499-514. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-008-0551-8.

Ashraf W, Seddigi Z, Abulkibash A, Khalid M. 2006. Levels of selected metals in canned fish consumed in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Environmental  Monitoring  and  Assessment  117(1), 271-279. DOI:10.1007/s10661-006-0989-5.

Aucoin J, Blanchard R, Billiot C, Partridge C, Schultz D, Mandhare K, Beck MJ, Beck JN. 1999. Trace metals in fish and sediments from Lake Boeuf, Southeastern Louisiana. Microchem Journal 62, 299-307. DOI: org/10.1006/mchj.1999.1735.

Canli M, Atli G. 2003. The relationships between heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) levels and the size of six Mediterranean fish species. Environment Pollution 121 (1), 129-36. DOI: org/10.1016/S0269-7491(02)00194-X.

Castro-Gonzalez MI, Mendez-Armenta M. 2008. Heavy metals: Implications associated to fish consumption. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 26, 263-271. DOI: 10.1016/j.etap.2008.06.001.

Celik U, Oehlenschlager J. 2004. Determination of zinc and copper in fish samples collected from Northeast Atlantic By DPSAV. Food Chemistry 87, 343-347. DOI: org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2003.11.018.

Celik U, Oehlenschlager J. 2007. High contents of cadmium, lead, zinc and copper in popular fishery products sold in Turkish supermarkets. Food Control 18, 258-261. DOI: org/10.1016/j. foodcont. 2005.10.004.

Chen YC, Chen MH. 2001. Heavy metal concentrations in nine species of fishes caught in coastal waters off Ann-Ping, S.W. Taiwan. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 9, 107-114.

Dobaradaran S, Naddafi K, Nazmara SH, Ghaedi H. 2010. Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb) content in two fish species of Persian Gulf in Bushehr Port, Iran. African Journal of Biotechnology 9(37), 6191-6193.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 1983. Compilation of legal limits for hazardous substances in fish and fishery products,” FAO Fishery Circular, No. 464, 5–10.

Fernandes C, Fontaínhas-Fernandes A, Cabral D, Salgado MA. 2008. Heavy metals in water, sediment and tissues of Liza saliens from Esmoriz– Paramos lagoon, Portugal. Environment Monitoring and Assessment 136, 267–275. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-007-9682-6.

Heath AG. 1987. Water Pollution and Fish Physiology. CRC Press, Florida, USA, 245 pp.

Kardovani, P. 1995. Iranian marine ecosystem (the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea) (Vols. 1 & 2). Tehran, Iran: Ghomes.

Linde AR, Sanchez-Galan S, Izquierdo JI, Arribas P, Maranon E, Garcya-Vazquez E. 1998. Brown Trout as biomonitor of heavy metal pollution: effect of age on the reliability of the assessment. Ecotoxicological and Environmental Safety 40, 120-125. DOI: org/10.1006/eesa.1998.1652.

Macfarlane GB, Burchett MD. 2000. Cellular distribution of Cu, Pb and Zn in the Grey Mangrove Avicennia marina (Forsk). Aquatic Botany 68, 45-49. DOI:

Maaboodi H, Jamili S, Maddani H. 2011. Accumulation of heavy metals (Lead and Zinc) in the Liver of some edible fishes in Zayandeh-rood. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences 5 (3), 295-301. DOI: 10.3923/rjes.2011.295.301.

MAFF. 1995. Monitoring and surveillance of non-radioactive contaminants in the aquatic environment and activities regulating the disposal of wastes at sea, 1993. Aquatic Environment Monitoring Report No. 44. Direcorate of Fisheries Research, Lowestoft.

Mendil D, Uluozlu OD, Hasdemir E, Tuzen M, Sari H, Suicmez M. 2005. Determination of trace metal levels in seven fish species in lakes in Tokat, Turkey. Food Chemistry 90, 175-179. DOI: org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.03.039.

Merian E. 1991. Metals and their Compounds in Environment and Life. Occurrence, Analysis and Biological Relevance. New York, Verlag Chemie Weinheim.

Mitra A, Mondal K, Banerjee K. 2010. Concentration of Heavy Metals in Fish Juveniles of Gangetic Delta of West Bengal, India. Journal of Fisheries and Hydrobiology 5(1), 21-26.

Oymak SA, Karadede-Akin H, Dogan N. 2009. Heavy metal in tissues of Tor grypus from Ataturk Dam Lake, Euphrates River-Turkey. Biologia 64(1), 151-155.

Rashed MN. 2001. Monitoring of environmental heavy metals in fish from Nasser lake. Environmental International 27, 27-33.

Sadeghi-Rad M. 1997. Studying and determination of heavy metals (Mercury, Cadmium, Lead, Zinc, Cobalt) in some species of Anzali swamp edible fish (Carp, Duck fish, Carassius, Phytophag). Science Magazine Iran Fish 4, 1-16.

Sivaperumal P, Sankar, TV, Viswanathan Nair, PG. 2007. Heavy metal concentrations in fish, shellfish and fish products from internal markets of India vis-a-vis international standards. Food chemistry 102, 612-620.

Turkmen M, Turkmen A, Tepe Y, Ates A, Gokku K. 2008. Determination of metal contaminations in sea foods from Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean seas: Twelve fish species. Food Chemistry 108, 794-800. DOI: org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.11.025.

Turkmen A, Turkmen M, Tepe Y, Cekic M. 2010. Metals in tissues of fish from Yelkoma Lagoon, northeastern Mediterranean. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 168, 223-230. DOI:10.1007/s10661-009-1106-3.

Tuzen M, Soylak M. 2007. Determination of trace metals in canned fish marketed in Turkey. Food Chemistry 101(4), 1378-1382. DOI: org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.03.044.

Tuzen M. 2009. Toxic and essential trace elemental contents in fish species from the Black Sea, Turkey. Journal  of  Food  and  chemical  Toxicology  47(9), 2302-2307. DOI: org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.04.029.

UNEP. 1991. Sampling of selected marine organisms and  sample  preparation  for  the  analysis  of chlorinated  hydrocarbons  Reference  Methods  for Marine  Pollution  Studies  No.  12.  Rev.  2.  UNEP. Nairobi. 17.

WHO.  1996. Health  criteria  other  supporting information.  In:  Guidelines  for  Drinking  Water Quality, vol. 2, 2nd ed., pp. 31-388, Geneva.

Yilmaz F, Ozdemir N, Demirak A, Tuna AL. 2007. Heavy metal levels in two fish species Leuciscus cephalus  and  Lepomis  gibbosus.  Food  Chemistry 100, 830-835. DOI: org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.09.020.