Determination of physico-chemical quality of water in Kiamumbi Catchment, Kiambu County, Kenya

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Research Paper 01/01/2014
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Determination of physico-chemical quality of water in Kiamumbi Catchment, Kiambu County, Kenya

Jeremia Wahome Mwangi, Erastus Gatebe, Joseph Gikunju
J. Bio. Env. Sci.4( 1), 24-33, January 2014.
Certificate: JBES 2014 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

Water is an essential ingredient of our wellbeing and a healthy life. The quality of water is paramount for the existence of mankind. Water quality can be determined by the Physico-chemical parameters. The water quality of Kiamumbi Reservoir water project is of great importance because it is used for consumption by the population in the settlement area. This study aimed at analyzing the physical and chemical quality of water in Kiamumbi reservoir, the feeder river and water supplied to households during the wet and dry seasons. Portable pH meter (Jenways), Portable TDS meter 4076 (Jenways), Portable Ec meter (Jenways), and Portable turbidity meter were used after appropriate calibration. The mean pH ranged from 6.96 to 7.24. Total dissolved solids and turbidity levels were 137.7 mg/L and 8.04 NTU respectively. The mean electrical conductivity was 0.2 ms. Heavy metals were analysed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and the concentrations (ppm) were as follows; Zinc, 0.14, Chromium,0.57, cooper 0.06, calcium 1.3 , magnesium ,5.1, Manganese, 0.19, Cadmium 0.3, nickel, 0.25, lead, 0.4 and iron 0.5 . The concentrations of phosphate, sulphate and chloride in water was 12.92, 0.47 and 343.7 mg/L respectively. The heavy metals that were found to be present in concentration levels higher than the recommended standards (Kenya Beaurae of standards,2007, WHO, 2011) were Chromium, Lead, Iron, Nickel and Cadmium. Results of this study will form the baseline for monitoring and tracking changes in the presence and concentration of the pollutants and the water quality as a result of the reservoir’s natural dynamics overtime or impact of anthropogenic activities on the reservoir and its water shed.

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