Determine of nutritive value of dried citrus pulp various using in situ and gas production techniques

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/06/2013
Views (271) Download (5)

Determine of nutritive value of dried citrus pulp various using in situ and gas production techniques

Valiollah Palangi, Akbar Taghizadeh, Mohammad Kazem Sadeghzadeh
J. Bio. Env. Sci.3( 6), 8-16, June 2013.
Certificate: JBES 2013 [Generate Certificate]


Citrus pulp is an important by-product for sub-tropical and tropical ruminant animal production. In this study two wethers (38 ± 1.5) were used insitu method. Wetheres equipped with ruminal cannulas. Ruminal DM and CP disappearances were measured 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96h. The gas production was measured at 2,4,6,8,12, 24,36 and 48 h. Dry matter degradabilities of Orange, Grape fruit, Lemon and Tangerine at 96h were 92.1, 94.3, 86.3 and 92.1 respectively. Crude protein degradabilities of mentioned citrus pulps were 40.0, 37.1, 31.0 and 35.9 respectively. DM and CP in situ degradability at 96h showed significant differences (P < 0.05). Orange pulp showed high level of metabolizable protein (73.97 %) there were significant differences (P < 0.05). the most rate of gas production is related to grapefruit pulp showed significant differences (P < 0.05). data showed that citrus pulp can be used as a high energy feed in ruminant rations to support growth and lactation, with fewer negative effects on rumen fermentation than starch rich feeds.


AFRC. 1992. Nutritive requirements of ruminant animal: Protein Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews. 62:787-835. CAB International Walling Ford. Oxon.

Afshar Mirzaei A, Maheri-Sis N. 2008. Nutritive value of some agro-industrial by-products for ruminants- a review. World Journal of Zoology 3, 40-46.

Akinfemi  A, Adu O, Adesanya, Aya V E. 2009. Use of in vitro gas production technique to evaluate some Nigerian feedstuffs. American-Eurasian J of Scientific Research 4, 240-245.

Ammerman CB, Henry PR. 1991. Citrus and vegetable products for ruminant animals. In: Proceedings of the Alternative Feeds for Dairy and Beef Cattle Symposium, St. Louis, MO, USA, pp. 103– 110.

AOAC. 2005. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC international. AOAC international. Maryland, USA.

Aroeira LJM, Lopes FCF, Dayrell MS, Lizieire RS, Torres MP. 1995. Digestibilidade, degradabilidade e taxa de passagem da cana-de-acucar mais ureia e do farelo de algodao em vacas mesticas Holandes x zebu em lactacao. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 24, 1016-1026.

Arthington JD, Kunkle WE, Martin AM. 2002. Citrus pulp for cattle. Vet. Clinical Food Animal 18, 317–326.

Barrios-Urdaneta A, Fondevila M, Castrillo C. 2003. Effect of supplementation with different proportions of barley grain or citrus pulp on the digestive utilization of ammonia-treated straw by sheep. Animal Science 76, 309–317.

Bampidis V A, Robinson PH. 2006. Citrus by-products as ruminant feeds: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology 128, 175–217.

Belibasakis NG, Tsirgogianni D. 1996. Effects of dried citrus pulp on milk yield, milk composition and blood components of dairy cows. Animal Feed Science and Technology 60, 87–92.

Ben-Ghedalia D, Yosef E, Miron J, Est Y. 1989. The effects of starch- and pectin-rich diets on quantitative aspects of digestion in sheep. Animal Feed Science and Technology 24, 289–298.

Chapman H L, Ammerman C B, Baker F S, Hentges JF, Hayes B W, Cunha T J. 1983. Citrus feeds for beef cattle. Univ. Florida, Gainesville Bull 751,1–34.

Datt C, Singh G. 1995. Effect of protein supplementation on in vitro digestibility and gas production of wheat straw. Indian Journal of Dairy Science 48, 357-361.

Grasser LA, Fadel JG, Garnett I, DePeters EJ. 1995. Quality and economic importance of nine selected by-products used in California dairy rations. Journal Dairy Science 78, 962–971.

Gomes BV, Queiroz AC, Fontes CAA, Amaral JL. 1994. Estudo das caracteristicas fisico-quimicas de fenos e palhas. II. Efeito sobre a degradabilidade in situ da materia seca, proteina bruta e fibra detergente neutro. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 23, 292-304.

Pereira JC, Gonzalez J. 2004. Rumen degradability of dehydrated beet pulp and dehydrated citrus pulp. Animal Research 53, 99-110.

Kale PN, Adsule PG. 1995. Citrus. In: Salunkhe, D.K., Kadam, S.S. (Eds.), Handbook of Fruit Science and Technology: Production, Composition, Storage, and Processing. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, USA, pp. 39–65.

Khazaal K,  Dentinho MT,  Ribeiro JM, Orskov ER. 1995. Prediction of apparent digestibility and voluntary intake of hays fed to sheep: comparison between using flbre components, in vitro digestibility orcharacteristics of gas production or nylon bag degradation. Animal Science 61, 527-538.

Khazaal K, Dentinho MT, Ribeiro JM, Orskov ER. 1993. A comparison of gas production during incubation with rumen contents in vitro and nylon bag degradability as predictors of the apparentdigestibility in vivo and voluntary intake of hays. Animal Production 57, 105-l 12.

Kim S C, Adesogan A T, Arthington JD. 2007. Optimizing nitrogen utilization in growing steers fed forage diets supplemented with dried citrus pulp. Journal Animal Science 85, 2548-2555

Kostas F, George Z, Spyridula S, Eleni A. 1995. Nutritive value of dried citrus pulp and its effect on milk yield and milk composition of lactating ewes. Journal Dairy Science 78, 1116-1121.

Lanza A. 1984. Dried citrus pulp in animal feeding. In: Holl´o, J. (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Symposium on Food Industries and the Environment. Budapest, Hungary. Elsevier Pulishers, New York, NY, USA, pp.189–198.

Madrid M F, Hernandez M, Pulgar A, Cid JM. 1998. Effects of citrus by-product supplementation on the intake and digestibility of urea+sodium hydroxide-treated barley straw in goats. Small Ruminal Research 28, 241-248.

Mc Dougall EI. 1948. The composition and output of sheep in saliva. Bio Chem Journal 43, 99-109.

Miron J, Yosef E, Ben-Ghedalia D, Chase LE, Bauman D E, Solomon R. 2002. Digestibility by dairy cows of monosaccharide constituents in total mixed rations containing citrus pulp. Journal Dairy Science 85, 89-94.

Nocek JE. 1988. In situ and other methods to estimate ruminal protein and energy digestibility. Journal Dairy Science 71, 2051-2069.

NRC. 1989. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 6th Edn. Natl. acad. Sci.,Washington. DC.

Ørskov ERI, Mc Donald IM. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. Journal Agricultural Science 92, 499-503.

Palangi V, Khoshvaghti H, Sharafi Y, Eivazi P. 2012. Determination of nutritive value of Sallow and Service leaves using nylon bags and gas production techniques. Indian Journal Animal Research 40, 361-365.

Pereira JC, Gonzalez J. 2004. Rumen degradability of dehydrated beet pulp and dehydrated citrus pulp. Animal Research 53, 99-110.

Rodrigues MAM, Cone JW, Ferreira LMM, Blok MC, Guedes CVM. 2009. Relationship between in situ degradation kinetics and in vitro gas production fermentation using different mathematical models. Animal Feed Science and Technology 151, 86-96.

SAS. 1999. Version release 8/0. SAS Institute Inc., Cary NC, U.S.A.

Silva, A.G., Wanderley, R.C., Pedroso, A.F., Ashbell, G. 1997. Ruminal digestion kinetics of citrus peel. Animal Feed Science and Technology 68, 247–257.

Solomon R, Chase LE, Ben-Ghedalia D, Bauman DE. 2000. The effect of nonstructural carbohydrate and addition of full fat extruded soybeans on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in the milk fat of dairy cows. Journal Dairy Science 83, 1322–1329.

Taghizadeh A, Danesh mesgaran M, Eftekhar Shahroodi F, Stanford K.2005.Digestion of feed Amino Acids in rumen and intestine of Steers measured using a Mobile Nylon Bag Technique.Journal Dairy Science 88, 1714-1807.

Tilley JMA, Terry RA. 1963. A two stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. Journal British Grassland Society18, 104.

Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Levvis BA. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non starch polysaccharides in ration to animal nutrition. Journal Animal Science 74, 3583-3597.

Verite R, Sauvant D. 1981. Prevision de la valeur nutritive azote des aliments concentres pour les ruminants. In: Prevision de la Valeur Nutritive des Aliments des Ruminants. p 279. INRA publications, Versailles, France.

Vilela  GL, Valadares F, Silva SC, Cecon JFC, Queiroz PR,   Nascimento   AC. 1994. Degradabilidade in situ da materia seca e da proteina bruta e proteina efetivamente degradada no rumen, de varios alimentos. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 23, 342-351.