Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Dietary krill oil (Euphausia superba) alleviates oxidative stress and DNA damages bio-markers in an experimental model of cafeteria diet-induced insulin resistance in rats

Research Paper | May 1, 2017

| Download 9

Zoheir Mellouk, Maria Agustina, Jose Arivalo

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.10( 5), 199-206, May 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/10.5.199-206


IJB 2017 [Generate Certificate]


Chronic exposure to cafeteria-based diet has been shown to exert a number of adverse metabolic effects in both human and experimental studies. Indeed, krill oil has been the subject of extensive investigation regarding its possible beneficial effects on insulin resistance-related disorders. The present experiment aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of krill oil (Euphausia superba) in the modulation of metabolic disorders, oxidative stress and DNA oxidative damage markers in an experimental model of cafeteria diet-induced insulin resistance. A total of 30, 8-week male Wistar rats were divided into three equal groups: the control diet group (Control), the cafeteria diet group (CAF), and the cafeteria diet group enriched with krill oil at 2% (CAF-KO). After 8 weeks of the experiment, weight gain, adiposity index as well as plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides were assayed. Insulin resistance was estimated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). In parallel, plasma and target tissues’ (liver, pancreas, adipose tissue and muscle) pro-oxidant status were assessed by assaying thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LPO), and isoprostanes (8-isoprostanes). The DNA oxidative damage was evaluated through measurement of the main product of its oxidation (8-OHdG). The 8-week cafeteria diet led to obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, this obesogenic diet increased the metabolic response to radical attack and DNA oxidation in both plasma and key tissues. Dietary krill oil displays remarkable health benefits by improving insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, which acts by preserving antioxidant mechanisms and protecting cellular components such as DNA and lipids from oxidative damage.


Copyright © 2017
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Dietary krill oil (Euphausia superba) alleviates oxidative stress and DNA damages bio-markers in an experimental model of cafeteria diet-induced insulin resistance in rats

Bonnefont-Rousselot D. 2013. Obesity and oxidative stress. Obesity 9, 8-13.

Castro H, Pomar CA, Picó C, Sánchez J, Palou A. 2015. Cafeteria diet over-feeding in young male rats impairs the adaptive response to fed/fasted conditions and increases adiposity independent of body weight.  International Journal of Obesity 39, 430-437.

Council of European Communities. 1987. Council instructions about the protection of living animals used in scientific investigations; (Offi J Euro Com JO 86/609/CEE, L358, 1–28, Corri Off J; L 117 of 05.05.1987).

Darimont C, Yurini M, Epitaux M, Zbinden I, Richelle M, Montell E, Martinez AF, Mace K. 2004. 3-adrenoceptor agonist prevents alterations of musclediacylglycerol and adipose tissue phospholipids induced by a cafeteria diet. Nutrition and Metabolism 1, 4-12.

Di Marzo V. 2010. Dietary krill oil increases docosahexaenoic acid and reduces2-arachidonoyl glycerol but not N-acylethanolamine levels in the brain of obese Zucker rats. International Dairy Journal 12, 231-235.

Eslick GD, Howe PR, Smith C, Priest R, Bensoussan A. 2009. Benefits of fish oil supplementation in hyperlipidemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Cardiology 136, 4-16.

Eymard S, Genot C. 2003. A modified xylenol orange method to evaluate formation of lipid hydroperoxides during storage and processing of small pelagic fish. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 105, 497-501.

FAO Species fact sheet: Euphausia superba. FAO Fischeries & Aquaculture: http://www.fao.org/fishery/species/3393/en.

Flachs P. 2005. Polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin upregulate mitochondrial biogenesis and induce beta-oxidation in white fat. Diabetologia, 2365-2375.

Franco JG, Lisboa PC, Lima NS. 2013. Resveratol attenuates oxidative stress and prevents steatosis and hypertension in obese rats programmed by early weaning. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 24, 960-966.

Gardès-Albert M, Bonnefont-Rousselot D, Abedinzadeh Z, Jore D. 2013. Reactive oxygen species. How the oxygen can become toxic? Actual Journal of Applied Chemistry 12, 91-96.

Gauvreau D, Villeneuve N, Deshaies Y, Cianflone K. 2011. Novel adipokines: links between obesity and atherosclerosis. Annales of Endocrinology 72, 224-231.

Genot C. 1996. Some factors influencing TBA test. Report of diet-ox project. AIRIII-CT, 1577-1592.

Grimstad T, Bjørndal B, Cacabelos D, Aasprong OG, Janssen EA, Omdal R. 2012. Dietary supplementation of krill oil attenuates inflammation and oxidative stress in experimental ulcerative colitis in rats. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 47, 49-58.

Harris WS, Kris-Etherton PM, Harris KA. 2008. Intakes of long-chain omega-3 fatty acid associated with reduced risk for death from coronary heart disease in healthy adults. Current Atherosclerosis Reports 10, 503-509.

Hulsmans M, Van Dooren E, Holvoet P. 2012. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and risk of atherosclerosis. Current Atherosclerosis Reports. Rep 14, 264-276.

Ke P, Woyewoda A. 1979. Microdetermination of thiobarbituric acid values inmarine lipids by a direct spectrophotometric method with a monophasic reaction system. Analytica Chimica Acta 106, 279-284.

Kidd P. 2015. Astaxanthin, cell membrane nutrient with diverse clinical benefits and anti-aging potential. Alternative Medicine Review, 355–364.

Lay-Saw S, Yuqing YA, Guo Y, Kong T. 2013. Astaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids individually and in combination protect against oxidative stress via the Nrf2–ARE pathway. Food and Chemical Toxicology 62, 869-875.

Lowry OH, Passonneau JV. 1972. A flexible system of enzymatic analysis. Academic Press, 174.

Mas E, Woodman RJ, Burke V. 2010. The omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA decrease plasma F(2)-isoprostanes: results from two placebo-controlled interventions. Free Radical Research 44, 983-990.

Oliver P, Reynes B, Caimari A, Palou A. 2013. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a potential source of homeostatic imbalance markers associated with obesity development. Pflugers Archiv 465, 459-468.

Ramprasath VR, Eyal I, Zchut S, Jones JH. 2013. Enhanced increase of omega-3 index in healthy individuals with response to 4-week n-3 fatty acid supplementation from krill oil versus fish oil. Lipids In Health and Disease 12, 168-178.

Richard D, Wolf C, Barbe U. 2009. Docosahexaenoic acid down-regulates endothelial Nox 4 through a sPLA2 signalling pathway. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 389, 516-522.

Santocono M, Zurria M, Berrettini M, Fedeli D, Falcioni G. 2006. Influence of astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein on DNA damage and repair in UVA-irradiated cells. Journal of Photobiology 85, 205-215.

Shahidi F. 2012. Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods and Dietary Supplements in Health and Disease. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 20, 226-230.

Steinmetz KA, Potter JD. 1996. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 10, 1027-1039.

Tripathi DN, Jena GB. 2009. Intervention of astaxanthin against cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage: A study in mice. Chemico-Biological Interactions 180, 398-406.

Ulven SM. 2011. Metabolic effects of Krill Oil are essentially similar to those of fish oil but at lower dose of EPA and DHA in healthy volunteers. Lipids 37-46.