Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | October 15, 2014

| Download 2

Dimensional sex differences in the cerebellum of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus – waterhouse, 1840)

O. Byanet, T. Dzenda, M.H. Sulaiman

Key Words: Cerebellum, Cricetomys gambianus, Sex differences

Int. J. Biosci.5( 8), 1-10, October 2014

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/5.8.1-10


IJB 2014 [Generate Certificate]


Numerous scientific studies have revealed a number of striking sex differences in the mammalian cerebella. The present study was carried out to determine the effect of sex on 12 cerebella (6 males and 6 females) and also its relationship to other body variables in adult African giant pouched rats using a quantitative morphometric method. The results showed that cerebellum mean weight was slightly higher in females (0.82 ± 0.03 g) than males (0.76 ± 0.02 g). In females, the cerebellum weight was strongly positively correlated with the brain (r = 0.95) and the head (r = -0.49) weights. In males, the cerebellum weight was positively correlated with the body (r = 0.81), the head (r = 0.37) and brain (r = 0.30) weights. Generally, cerebellum weight and dimensions in both sexes tended to be positively correlated with the body, the head and the brain. In conclusion, the cerebellum in females may be estimated accurately from the brain mass, while in males, it may be used to estimate the body mass.


Copyright © 2014
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Dimensional sex differences in the cerebellum of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus – waterhouse, 1840)

Ali MN, Byanet O, Salami SO, Imam J, Maidawa SM, Umosen AD, Alphonsus C, Nzalak JO. 2008. Gross anatomical aspects of the gastrointestinal tract of the wild African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus). Scientific Research and Essay 3, 518 – 520.

Ali MN, Onyeanusi BI, Ayo JO, Ojo SA, Salami SO, Nzalak JO, Byanet O. 2011. Effect of Season on the Reproductive Organs of the Female African Giant Rat (Cricetomys gambianus) in Zaria, Nigeria. International Journal of Morphology 29(3), 841-844. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S07179502201100030002 9

Allen JS, Damasio H, Grabowski TJ, Bruss J, Zhang W. 2003. Sexual dimorphism and asymmetries in the gray-white composition of the human cerebrum. Neuroimage 18, 880 – 894. www.elsevier.com/locate.ynimg

Allen LS, Richey MF, Chai YM, Gorski RA. 1991. Sex differences in the corpus callosum of the living human being. Journal of Neuroscience 11, 933-942.

Andreasen NC, Flaum M, Swayze V, O’leary DS, Alliger R, Cohen G, Ehrhardt J, Yuh WTC. 1993. Intelligence and brain structure in normal individuals. American Journal of Psychiatry 150, 130 -134.

Ampatzis K, Dermon RC. 2007. Sex differences in adult cell proliferation within the zebrafish (Danio rerio) cerebellum. European Journal of Neuroscience 25, 1030 – 1040.

Asibey EOA, Addo PG. 2000. The grasscutter, a promising animal meat production in Ghana. African Perspectives, Practices and policies supporting Scandinavian Seminar College,Denmark, in association with Weaver press, Harare, Zimbabwe. www.cdr.dk/sscafrica/asd.dadgh.htm

Becker SV, Middleton CC. 1979. Body weight ratios of the African white-tailed rat (Mystromys albicaudatus). Laboratory Animal Science 29, 44 – 47.

Byanet O, Nzalak JO, Salami SO, Umosen AD, Ojo SA, Obadiah HI, Bosha JA, Onoja BO. 2008. Morphometric observations of the brain of the African grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) in Nigeria. Veterinary Research 2(2), 22-24.

Byanet O, Onyeanusi BI, Ibrahim NDG. 2009. Sexual dimorphism with respect to the macro-morphometric investigations of the forebrain and cerebellum of the grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus). International Journal of Morphology 27, 361-365. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717950220090002000 10

Chenn A, Wash CA. 2002. Regulation cerebral cortical size of control of cell cycle exit in neural precursors. Science 297, 365-369.

Cooke B, Carol D, Hegstrom L, Villeneuve S, Breedlove SM. 1998. Sexual Differentiation of the Vertebrate Brain: Principles and Mechanisms. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 19, 323-362.

Cutts A. 1988. Shrinkage of muscle fibres during the fixation of cadaveric tissue. Journal of Anatomy 160, 75 – 78.

Escalona PR, Mcdonald WM, Doraiswamy PM, Boyko OB, Husain MM, Figiel GS, Laskowitz D, Ellinwood EH, Krishnan KR. 1991. In vivo stereological assessment of human cerebellar volume: effects of gender and age. American Journal of Neuroradiology 12, 927-929.

Fan L, Yuchun TB, Sun GG, Zhang JC, Xiangtao L, Taifei Y, Zhenping L, Alan CE, Shuwei L. 2010. Sexual dimorphism and asymmetry in human cerebellum: an MRI-based morphometric study. Brain Research 20, 1-14.

Filipek PA, Richelme C, Kennedy DN, Caviness VS. 1994. The young adult human brain: an MRI-based morphometric analysis. Cerebral Cortex 5, 344-360.

Fletcher TF. 2006. Brain Gross Anatomy lab manual for CVM 6120 In: Veterinary Neurology. University of Minnesota, College of Veterinary Medicine, p. 1- 25.

Han VZ, Meek J, Campbell HR, Bell CC. 2006. Cell morphology and circuitry in the centrallobes of the mormyrid cerebellum. Journal of Comparative Neurology 497, 309-325.

Ibe S, Onyeanusi BI, Hambolu JO, Ayo JO. 2010. Sexual dimorphism in the whole brain and brainstem morphometry in the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse 1840). Folia Morphologica 69(2), 69-74.

Inouye N, Oda S. 1980. Strain-specific variations in the folial pattern of the mouse cerebellum. Journal of Comparative Neurology 190, 357-62.

Ito M. 2000. Internal model visualized. Nature 403, 153-154.

Ito M, Sakurai M, Tongroach P. 1982. Climbing fibre induced depression of both mossy fibre responsiveness and glutamate sensitivity of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Journal of Physiology (London) 324, 113–134.

Larsell O. 1952. The morphogenesis and adult pattern of the lobules and fissures of the cerebellum of the white rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology 97, 281- 357.

Luders E, Rex DE, Narr KL, Woods RP, Jancke L, Thompson PM, Mazziotta JC, Toga AW. 2003. Relationships between sulcal asymmetries and corpus callosum size: gender and handedness effects. Cerebral Cortex 13, 1084- 1093.

Luft AR, Skalej M, Schultz JB, Welte D, Kolb R, Bürk K, Klockgether T, Voigt K. 1999. Patterns of age-related shrinkage in the cerebellum and brainstem observed in vivo using three-dimensional MRI volumetry. Cerebral Cortex 9, 712-721. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/9.7.712

Mayhew TM, Mwamengele GLM, Danzert V. 1990. Comparative morphometry of the mammalian brain: estimates of cerebral volumes and cortical surface areas obtained from macroscopic slices. Journal of Anatomy 172, 191–200.

Majdic G. 2009. Is male brain different from female brain? Slovenian Veterinary Research 46(3), 85-91.

Murshed KA, Taner Z, Muzaffer S, Aynur EC, Saim A. 2003. Morphometric assessment of brain stem and cerebellar vermis with midsagittal MRI: the gender differences and effects of age. Neuroanatomy 2, 35-38.

National Research Council, USA. 1991. Micro livestock: Little-Known Small Animals with a Promising Economic Future. National Academy Press, Washington, D. C. 225- 240 p.

 Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria. 2005. Prepared by the International Committee on Veterinary Gross Anatomical Nomenclature and Authorized by the General assembly of the World Association of Veterinary Anatomists WAVA in Knoxville, USA. 2005.

Nguon K, Ladd B, Baxter MG, Sajdel-Sulkowska EM. 2005. Sexual dimorphism in cerebellar structure, function, and response to environmental perturbations. Progress in Brain Research 148, 341-351.

Olopade JO, Onwuka SK. 2002. Preliminary Morphometric Investigation of the brain of Red Sokoto (maradi) goat. Tropical Veterinarian 20(2), 80 – 84.

Onwuka SK, Olopade JO, Babajide BF, Ehimiyien IO. 2003. Preliminary morphometric investigation of the brain of the West African Dwarf goat, Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association (NVMA). 57–59 P.

Onwuka SK, Olopade JO, Balogun BA, Oke BO. 2005. Morphometric Investigation of the brain of West African Dwarf sheep in Nigeria. Internation Journal of Morphology 23(2), 99-104. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717950220050002000 01

Olude MA, James OO, Adebayo KA, Oluwaseun AM. 2010. Macro-anatomical investigations of the skeletons of the African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse 1840) II: Fore limb. European Journal of Anatomy 14(1), 19-23

Onyeanusi BI, Adeniyi AA, Ayo JO, Nzalak JO. 2007. Morphometric studies on the kidneys of the African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse). Journal of Animal Veterinary Advances 6, 1273-1276.

Onyeanusi BI, Adeniyi AA, Ayo JO, Ibe CS, Onyeanusi CG. 2009. A comparative study of the urinary system of the African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse) and the Wistar rat. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8, 1043-1047.

Peters M, Janck L, Staiger JF, Schlaus G, Helang Y, Steinmetz H. 1998. Unsolved problems of comparing brain sizes in homosapiens. Brain and Cognition 38, 254-85.

Peters M, Janck L, Zilles K. 2000. Comparison of overall brain volume and Mid-Sagittal Corpus Callosum Surface Area as obtained from NMR Scan and Direct Anatomical Measures; A writer subject study on autopsy brain. Neuropsychologia 38, 1375-1381.

Rhyu IJ, Cho TH, Lee NJ, Uhm CS, Kim H, Suh YS. 1999. Magnetic resonance image based cerebellar volumetry in healthy Korean adults. Neuroscience Letters 270, 149-152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3940(99)00487-5

Salami SA, Onwuama KT, Byanet O, Ibe SC, Ojo SO. 2011. Morphological studies of the appendicular skeleton of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus) part (ii) pelvic limb. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health 3(7), 88 – 93. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JVMAH11.013

Sisson S, Grossman JD. 1953. Nervous system. In: The Anatomy of the Domestic Animals 4th.Ed (W.B. Saunders Company. 788-881 P.

Sultan F, Braitenberg V. 1993. Shapes and sizes of different mammalian cerebellum. A Study in Quantitative Comparative Neuroanatomy. Journal of Hirnforsch 34, 79-92.

Sultan F, Glickstein M. 2007.  The  cerebellum: Comparative and animal studies. The Cerebellum, 000, 1-9.

Yeboah S, Adamu EK. 1995. The Cane Rat. Biologist 42(2), 86-7.

Yucel K, Hakyemez B, Parlak M, Oygucu IH. 2002. Morphometry of some elements of limbic system in normal population: a quantitative MRI study. Neuroanatomy 1, 15-21.