J. Bio. Env. Sci.5(4), 264-278, October 2014
Aerial parts of Varthemia candicans were collected seasonally for one year (winter, spring, summer and autumn) from Wadi Habbes (rocky habitat) and Sand Dunes habitat, West Marsa Matrouh, Egypt. The results of the plant photochemical analysis cleared out that the amount of soluble carbohydrates in the study habitats during the wet seasons (winter and autumn) was higher than that of the dry season, however the content of insoluble carbohydrates recorded a reverse trend. HPLC analysis of free sugars detected the occurrence of glucoronic acid, raffinose, glucose, galactose, fructose and fucose. The most abundant free sugar in WH was glucoronic acid but in SD was raffinose. Also, HPLC analysis of combined sugars detected the presence of glucose, mannose, fructose and maltose with the commonness of maltose in the two study habitats. The amount of soluble amino acids and soluble proteins were greater in SD habitat than WH habitat during all seasons, except autumn season. Free amino acids in WH habitat revealed the richness of the plant with asparagines, but in SD habitat with proline, but in case of protein amino acids proline was common in WH and aspartic acid was common in SD habitat. The total lipids content was greater in SD habitat than in WH. GC-MS analysis of fatty acids revealed that Hexadecanoic acid methyl ester was common in the plant aerial parts in WH habitat, however the fatty acid 6-Acetyl-8methoxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-5-ol was common in the plant aerial parts in SD habitat.
Abbas MS, El-Morsy MH, Shahba MA, Moursy FI. 2008. Ecological studies in coastal sand dune rangelands in the north west of Egypt Options Méditerranéennes Series A 79, 389-393.
Adams RP. 2004. Identification of Essential oil Components by Gas Chromatography/ Quadrupole Mass Spectroscopy USA: Allured Publishing Corporation.
Ahire RK, Kale AA, Munjal SV, Jamdagni BM. 2005. Induced water stress Influencing proline accumulation protein profiles and DNA polymorphism in chickpea. Indian J Plant Physiol 10, 218-224.
Ahmed AA, Mahmoud AA, Tanaka T, Iinuma M. 1994. Two methylated flavonols from Jasonia candicans. Phytochemistry 35, 241-243.
Ahmed AA, Mahmoud AA, Williams HJ, Scott AI, Reibenspies JH, Mabry TJ. 1993. New sesquiterpene alpha-methylene lactones from the Egyptian plant Jasonia candicans. Journal of Natural Products 56, 1276-1280.
Ahmed HH, Booles HF, Khalil WKB, El Ashmaoui HM, Othman SM. 2013. Possible Therapeutic Role of Jasonia candicansa and Jasonia montana Extracts in the Regression of Alzheimer’s Disease in Experimental Model. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology 9 (2), 144-161.
Ali M. 2012. Diversity of Ecosystems. InTech Janeza Trdine 9 51000 Rijeka Croatia.
Al-Jebory EI. 2012. Effect of water stress on carbohydrate metabolism during Pisum sativum seedlings growth. Euphrates Journal of Agriculture Science 4 (4), 1-12
Bolarin NC, Santa-Cruz A, Cayuela E, Perez-Alfocea F. 1995. Short-term solute changes in leaves and roots of cultivated and wild tomato seedlings under salinity. Journal of Plant Physiology 147, 463-468.
Boulos L. 2009. Flora of Egypt Checklist Revised Annotated Edition. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
Bradford MM. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry 72, 248-254
Bremer K, Anderberg AA, Karis PO, Nordenstam B, Lundberg J, Ryding O. 1994. Asteraceae cladistics and classification. Timber Press Portland Oregon pp 287.
Carillo P. Mastrolonardo G. Nacca F., Fuggi A. 2005. Nitrate reductase in durum wheat seedlings as affected by nitrate nutrition and salinity. Functional Plant Biology 32, 209-219.
Chaplin MF, Kennedy JF. 1994. Carbohydrate analysis of practical approach. Oxford University press, Oxford New York, Tokyo 2nd Ed: pp 324
Christie WW. 1982. Lipid analysis Pergamon. press 2nd Ed: pp 207
Conroy JP, Virgona JM, Smillie RM, Barlow EWR. 1988. Influence of drought acclimation and CO2 enrichment on osmotic adjustment and chlorophyll a florescence of sunflower during drought. Plant Physiology 86, 1108-1115.
Das UN. 2006. Essential fatty acids—a review. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 7, 467-482.
De Pascuai TJD, Barrero AF, Feliciano AS, Grand M, Medarde M. 1980. Phytochemistry 19, 2155-2157.
do Amarante L, Lima JD, Sodek L. 2006. Growth and stress conditions cause similar changes in xylem amino acids for different legume species. Environmental and Experimental Botany 58, 123-129.
DuBois M, Gilles K, Hamilton J, Rebers P, Smith F. 1956. Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical Chemistry 28(3), 350-356.
Eid RA, Taha LS, Ibrahiem SMM. 2011. Alleviation of Adverse Effects of Salinity on Growth and Chemical Constituents of Marigold Plants by Using Glutathione and Ascorbate. Journal of Applied Science Research 7(5), 714-721.
Elhaak MA, El Sayed H. 1990. Solute potential and proline variations in leaves of different ages in two soybean cultivars in response to salt stress. Delta Journal of Science 14 (2), 708-718.
Elhaak MA. 1986. Water economy and productivity of some native and introduced fodder plant species of the western Mediterranean coastal of Egypt. PhD Thesis, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, pp179.
El-Kady HF. 1993. The ruderal vegetation of the Mediterranean desert of Egypt With 3 Figures and 4 Tables. Feddes Repertorium 140, 403-415.
Farag RS, Ahmed AI, Rashad SE, Ewies MW. 1986. Unsaponifiable matter of six pollen collected by honey bees in Egypt. Journal of Agricultural Research 19 (4) , 52-58.
Fougere F, Le RD, Streeter JG. 1991. Effects of salt stress on amino acid organic acid and carbohydrate composition of roots bacteroids and cytosol of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L). Plant Physiology 96, 1228-1236.
Garg BK, Kathju S, Burman U. 2001. Influence of water stress on water relations photosynthetic parameters and nitrogen metabolism of moth bean genotypes. Biologia Plantarum 44, 289-292.
Gill PK, Sharma AD, Singh P, Bhallar SS. 2001. Effect of various abiotic stresses on growth soluble sugars and water relations of sorghum seedling growth in light and darkness. Bulgarian Journal of Plant Physiology 27, 72-84.
Gunes A, Inal A, Adak MS, Bagci EG, Cicek N, Eraslan F. 2008. Effect of drought stress implemented at pre- or post- anthesis stage some physiological as screening criteria in chickpea cultivars. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 55, 59-67.
Gunstone FD, John LH, Albert JD. 2007. The Lipid Handbook with Cd-Rom 3rd Ed Boca Raton, CRC Press.
Hanson AD, Hitz WD. 1982. Metabolic responses of mesophytes to plant water deficits. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 33, 163-203.
Hepper FN, Friis I. 1994. The Plants of Pehr Forsskal’s “Flora Ageyptiaco-Arabica” Kew: Kew Publishing.
Herbinger K, Tausz M, Wonisch A, Soja G, Sorger A, Grill D. 2002. Complex interactive effects of drought and ozone stress on the antioxidant defense systems of two wheat cultivars. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 40, 691-696.
Hoekstra FA, Golovina EA, Butinik J. 2001. Mechanism of plant desiccation tolerance. Trends in Plant Science 6, 431-438.
Jensen RG, Hagerty MM, McMahon KE. 1978. Lipids of human milk and infant formulas: a review. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 31 (6), 990-1016.
Jiang Y, Huang B. 2002. Protein alternations in tall fescue in response to drought stress and abscisic acid. Crop Science 42, 202-207.
King CA, Purcell LC. 2005. Inhibition of nitrogen fixation in soybean is associated with elevated ureides and amino acids. Plant Physiology 137, 1389-1396.
Kingsbury KJ, Paul S, Crossley A, Morgan DM. 1961. The fatty acid composition of human depot fat. Biochemical Journal 78, 541-550.
Kottapalli KR, Rakwal R, Shibato J, Burow G, Tissue D, Burke J, Puppala N, Burow M, Payton A. 2009. Physiology and proteomics of the water-deficit stress response in three contrasting peanut genotypes. Plant Cell Environment 32, 380-407.
Kusaka M, Ohta M, Fujimura T. 2005. Contribution of inorganic components to osmotic adjustment and leaf folding for drought tolerance in pearl millet. Physiologia Plantarum 125, 474-489.
Lea PJ, Miflin BJ. 2003. Glutamate synthase and the synthesis of glutamate in plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 41, 555-564.
Lee YP, Takahashi T. 1966. An improved colorimetric determination of amino acids with use of ninhydrin. Analytical Biochemistry 14, 71-77.
Li H, Li X, Zhang D, Liu H, Guan K. 2013. Effects of drought stress on the seed germination and early seedling growth of the endemic desert plant Eremosparton songoricum (Fabaceae). Excli Journal 12, 89-101.
Matos AR, d’Arcy-Lameta A, França M, Petres S, Edelman L, Kader J, Zuily-Fodil Y, Pham-Thi AT. 2001. A novel patatin-like gene stimulated by drought stress encodes a galactolipid acyl hydrolase. FEBS Letters 491, 188-192.
Moinuddin A, Chopra K. 2004. Osmotic adjustment in chickpea in relation to seed yield and yield parameters. Crop Science 44, 449-455.
Monteiro DPF, Pham TA, Vieira DSJ, Justin AM, Demandre C, Mazliak P. 1990. Effects of water stress on the molecular species composition of polar lipids from Vigna unguiculata L leaves. Plant Science 66, 185-193.
Najaphy A, Khamss NN, Mostafaie A, Mirzaee H. 2010. Effect of progressive water stress deficit stress on proline accumulation and protein profiles of leaves in chickpea. African Journal of Biotechnology 9 (42), 7033-7036.
Norusis MJ. 2006. SPPS 15.0 guide to data analysis. Upper Saddle River, N J: Prentice Hall.
Norusis MJ. 2007. SPPS 15.0 advanced statistical procedures. Upper Saddle, River N J: Prentice Hall.
Pellet PL, Young VR. 1980. Nutritional evaluation of protein foods. Published by the United Nations University, pp 189.
Prado FE, Boero C, Gallardo M, Gonzalez JA. 2000. Effect of NaCl on germination growth and soluble sugar content in Chenopodium quino a wild seeds. Botanical Bulletin- Academia Sinica 41, 27-34.
Recio MC, Giner RM, Uriburu L, Mae ٌz S, Cerda M, De la Fuente JR, Ríos JL. 2000. In vivo activity of pseudoguaianolide sesquiterpene lactones in acute and chronic inflammation. Life Science 66, 2509-2519.
Serraj R, Sinclair TR. 2002. Osmolyte accumulation: can it really help increase crop yield under drought conditions? Plant Cell Environment 25, 333-341.
Siddique MRB, Hamid A, Islam MS. 2000. Drought stress effects on water relations of wheat. Botanical Bulletin- Academia Sinica 41, 35-39.
Singh AK. 2004. The physiology of salt tolerance in four genotypes of chickpea during germination. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 6, 87-93.
Täckholm V. 1974. Students’ Flora of Egypt ,Cairo University Press. Beirut pp 562.
Valentovic P, Luxova M, Kolarovic L, Gasparikova O. 2006. Effect of osmotic stress on compatible solutes content membrane stability and water relations in two maize cultivars. Plant Soil Environment 4, 186-191.
Vyas SP, Kathju S, Garg BK, Lahiri AN. 1996. Activities of nitrate reductase and ammonia assimilating enzymes of moth bean under water stress. Sci Cult 62, 213-214
Wei LS, Wee W, Siong JYF, Syamsumir DF. 2011. Characterization of antimicrobial antioxidant anticancer properties and chemical composition of malaysian of Adrographis paiculata leaf extract. Pharmacologyonline 2, 996-1002.
Wery J, Silim SN, Knights EJ, Malhotra RS, Cousin R. 1994. Screening techniques and sources and tolerance to extremes of moisture and air temperature in cool season food legumes. Euphytica 73, 73-83.
Yu SM, Lee YC, Fang SC, Chan MT, Hwa SF, Liu LF. 1996. Sugars act as signal molecules and osmotica to regulate the expression of alpha-amylase genes and metabolic activities in germinating cereal grains. Plant Molecular Biology 30, 1277-1289.