Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Does Human Papillomavirus cause Human Lung Cancer? – Applying Bradford Hill Criteria Postulates

Research Paper | February 1, 2021

| Download 18

Muhammad Usman, Mukhtiar Ahmad, Rizwan Asif, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Safdar Hussain, Yasir Hameed

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.18( 2), 20-38, February 2021

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/18.2.20-38


IJB 2021 [Generate Certificate]


The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in human lung cancer has already been extensively investigated with conflicting results. Although the researchers have attempted to establish a link between HPV and lung cancer through the statistical meta-analysis of the previous studies they failed to establish a more reliable link due to the shortcomings of the statistical meta-analysis. This study has been arranged to establish a link between HPV and lung cancer by applying the Bradford Hill criteria postulates. We identified population-wide studies relating to HPV with lung cancer through PubMed. Then we examined the available data on HPV prevalence in lung cancer, normal/benign samples, and applied the Bradford Hill criteria postulates on the available evidence to investigate the association between HPV and lung cancer. The Bradford-Hill criteria are very old, reliable, and widely accepted for establishing a link between the cause and disease. Additionally, to further enhance the reliability of our outcomes we have also evaluated the methodologies of the previous studies to address the possibility of false-negative and false-positive results. After a careful assessment of the extracted data against the postulates of Bradford Hill criteria, it was observed that previous studies do not fulfill all the major postulates of Bradford Hill criteria for causation including temporality, consistency, biological gradient, experiment, coherence, specificity, and analogy. Therefore, no causal relationship has been suggested between HPV and lung cancer. The results suggested HPV as a co-participant in the pathogenesis of lung cancer rather than a potential biomarker.


Copyright © 2021
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Does Human Papillomavirus cause Human Lung Cancer? – Applying Bradford Hill Criteria Postulates

Kyu HH, Bachman VF, Alexander LT. 2016. Physical activity and risk of breast cancer, colon cancer, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and ischemic stroke events: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition) 354, i3857-i. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i3857.

Idikio HA. 2011. Human cancer classification: a systems biology- based model integrating morphology, cancer stem cells, proteomics, and genomics. Journal of Cancer 2, 107-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.2.107.

Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. 2019. Cancer statistics, 2019. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 69, 7-34.

Sarchianaki E, Derdas SP, Ntaoukakis M. 2014. Detection and genotype analysis of human papillomavirus in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Tumour Biology 35, 3203-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13277-013-1419-2.

Whiteman DC, Wilson LF. 2016. The fractions of cancer attributable to modifiable factors: A global review. Cancer epidemiology 44, 203-21.

Malhotra J, Malvezzi M, Negri E. 2016a. Risk factors for lung cancer worldwide. European Respiratory Journal 48, 889-902.

Sagerup CM, Nymoen DA, Halvorsen AR. 2014. Human papilloma virus detection and typing in 334 lung cancer patients. Acta Oncology 53, 952-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/0284186x.2013.879608.

Malhotra J, Malvezzi M, Negri E. 2016b. Risk factors for lung cancer worldwide. European Respiratory Journal 48, 889-902.

Tsyganov MM, Pevzner AM, Ibragimova MK. 2019. Human papillomavirus and lung cancer: an overview and a meta-analysis. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 145, 1919-37.

Xiong WM, Xu QP, Li X. 2017. The association between human papillomavirus infection and lung cancer: a system review and meta-analysis. Oncotarget 8, 96419-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.21682.

Fedak KM, Bernal A, Capshaw ZA. 2015. Applying the Bradford Hill criteria in the 21st century: how data integration has changed causal inference in molecular epidemiology. Emerging themes in epidemiology 12, 14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12982-015-0037-4.

Miller YE. 2005. Pathogenesis of lung cancer: 100 year report. American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology 33, 216-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2005-0158OE.

Stremlau A, Gissmann L, Ikenberg H. 1985. Human papillomavirus type 16 related DNA in an anaplastic carcinoma of the lung. Cancer 55, 1737-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/10970142(19850415)55:8<1737::aid-cncr2820550820>3.0.co;2-o.

Syrjänen K, Syrjänen S, Kellokoski J. 1989. Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 6 and 16 DNA sequences in bronchial squamous cell carcinomas demonstrated by in situ DNA hybridization. Lung 167, 33-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02714928.

Bejui-Thivolet F, Chardonnet Y, Patricot LM. 1990. Human papillomavirus type 11DNA in papillary squamous cell lung carcinoma. Virchows Archiv. A, Pathological anatomy and histopathology 417, 457-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf01606035.

Kulski JK, Demeter T, Mutavdzic S. 1990. Survey of histologic specimens of human cancer for human papillomavirus types 6/11/16/18 by filter in situ hybridization. American journal of clinical pathology 94, 566-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/94.5.566.

Yousem SA, Ohori NP, Sonmez-Alpan E. 1992. Occurrence of human papillomavirus DNA in primary lung neoplasms. Cancer 69, 693-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/10970142(19920201)69:3<693::aid-cncr2820690316>3.0.co;2-y.

Ogura H, Watanabe S, Fukushima K. 1993. Human papillomavirus DNA in squamous cell carcinomas of the respiratory and upper digestive tracts. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 23, 221-5.

Xing LQ, Liu HR, Si JY. 1993. [Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in squamous cell carcinomas of the lung by multiple polymerase chain reaction]. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 16, 275-7, 319.

Liu HR, Xing LQ, Si JY. 1994. [A study of human papillary virus infection by in situ hybridization and histopathology in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 23, 299-301.

Shamanin V, Delius H, de Villiers EM. 1994. Development of a broad spectrum PCR assay for papillomaviruses and its application in screening lung cancer biopsies. Journal of General Virology 75(Pt 5), 1149-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/0022-1317-75-5-1149.

Szabó I, Sepp R, Nakamoto K. 1994. Human papillomavirus not found in squamous and large cell lung carcinomas by polymerase chain reaction. Cancer 73, 2740-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/10970142(19940601)73:11<2740::aid-cncr2820731115>3.0.co;2-c.

Xing LQ, Liu HR, Si JY. 1994. [Analysis of the characteristics of human papilloma virus infection in 85 neoplasms of the respiratory system in adult patients]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 16, 424-7.

al-Ghamdi AA, Sanders CM, Keefe M. 1995. Human papillomavirus DNA and TP53 mutations in lung cancers from butchers. British Journal of Cancer 72, 293-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1995.327.

Fong KM, Schonrock J, Frazer IM. 1995. Human papillomavirus not found in squamous and large cell lung carcinomas by polymerase chain reaction. Cancer 75, 2400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/10970142(19950501)75:9<2400::aid-cncr2820750933>3.0.co;2-6.

Kinoshita I, Dosaka-Akita H, Shindoh M. 1995. Human papillomavirus type 18 DNA and E6-E7 mRNA are detected in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung. British Journal of Cancer 71, 344-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1995.69.

Li Q, Hu K, Pan X. 1995. Detection of human papillomavirus types 16, 18 DNA related sequences in bronchogenic carcinoma by polymerase chain reaction. Chinese Medical Journal  108, 610-4.

Nuorva K, Soini Y, Kamel D. 1995. p53 protein accumulation and the presence of human papillomavirus DNA in bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma correlate with poor prognosis. International Journal of Cancer 64, 424-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.2910640612.

Sagawa M, Saito Y, Endo C. 1995. [Detection of human papillomavirus type 16, 18 and 33 DNA in stage I (pT1N0M0) squamous cell carcinoma of the lung by polymerase chain reaction]. Kyobu Geka 48, 360-2.

Thomas P, De Lamballerie X, Garbe L. 1995. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in primary lung carcinoma by nested polymerase chain reaction. Cell Molecular Biology (Noisy-le-grand) 41, 1093-7.

Zhang X, Zhu Y, Li L. 1995. [Point mutation of p53 and detection of human papillomavirus DNA in bronchogenic carcinoma]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 34, 673-5.

Da J, Chen L, Hu Y. 1996. [Human papillomavirus infection and p53 gene mutation in primary lung cancer]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 18, 27-9.

Hirayasu T, Iwamasa T, Kamada Y. 1996. Human papillomavirus DNA in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Journal of clinical pathology 49, 810-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jcp.49.10.810.

Soini Y, Nuorva K, Kamel D. 1996. Presence of human papillomavirus DNA and abnormal p53 protein accumulation in lung carcinoma. Thorax 51, 887-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thx.51.9.887.

Thomas P, De Lamballerie X, Garbe L. 1996. [Detection of human papillomavirus by polymerase chain reaction in primary lung carcinoma]. Bulletin du Cancer 83, 842-6.

Welt A, Hummel M, Niedobitek G. 1997. Human papillomavirus infection is not associated with bronchial carcinoma: evaluation by in situ hybridization and the polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Pathology 181, 276-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1096-9896(199703)181:3<276::aid-path738>3.0.co;2-l.

Bohlmeyer T, Le TN, Shroyer AL. 1998. Detection of human papillomavirus in squamous cell carcinomas of the lung by polymerase chain reaction. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 18, 265-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/ajrcmb.18.2.3033.

Papadopoulou K, Labropoulou V, Davaris P. 1998. Detection of human papillomaviruses in squamous cell carcinomas of the lung. Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology 433, 49-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004280050215.

Tsuhako K, Nakazato I, Hirayasu T. 1998. Human papillomavirus DNA in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung. Journal of clinical pathology 51, 741-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jcp.51.10.741.

Yang Y, Dong D, Peng L. 1998. [A study on the relationship between HPV infection and the oncogenesis of primary squamous carcinoma of the lung.]. Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi 1, 35-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.3779/j.issn.10093419.1998.01.09.

Gorgoulis VG, Zacharatos P, Kotsinas A. 1999. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is possibly involved in laryngeal but not in lung carcinogenesis. Human pathology 30, 274-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0046-8177(99)90005-9.

Hennig EM, Di Lonardo A, Venuti A. 1999a. HPV 16 in multiple neoplastic lesions in women with CIN III. Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 18, 369-77.

Hennig EM, Suo Z, Karlsen F. 1999b. HPV positive bronchopulmonary carcinomas in women with previous high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN III). Acta Oncology 38, 639-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/028418699431258.

Hiroshima K, Toyozaki T, Iyoda A. 1999. Ultrastructural study of intranuclear inclusion bodies of pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Ultrastructural Pathology 23, 383-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/019131299281356.

Clavel CE, Nawrocki B, Bosseaux B. 2000. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in bronchopulmonary carcinomas by hybrid capture II: a study of 185 tumors. Cancer 88, 1347-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1347::aid-cncr10>3.0.co;2-2.

Miyagi J, Tsuhako K, Kinjo T. 2000. Recent striking changes in histological differentiation and rate of human papillomavirus infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung in Okinawa, a subtropical island in southern Japan. Journal of clinical pathology 53, 676-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jcp.53.9.676.

Niyaz H, Zhao C, Li Y. 2000. [Detection and  significance of HPV16, 18 infection, P53  overexpression and telomerase activity in patients with lung cancer]. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 23, 679-82.

Cheng YW, Chiou HL, Sheu GT. 2001. The association of human papillomavirus 16/18 infection with lung cancer among nonsmoking Taiwanese women. Cancer Research 61, 2799-803.

Kaya H, Kotiloğlu E, Inanli S. 2001. Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in larynx and lung carcinomas. Pathologica 93, 531-4.

Miasko A, Niklińska W, Nikliński J. 2001. Detection of human papillomavirus in non-small cell lung carcinoma by polymerase chain reaction. Folia Histochem Cytobiol 39, 127-8.

Miyagi J, Kinjo T, Tsuhako K. 2001. Extremely high Langerhans cell infiltration contributes to the favourable prognosis of HPV‐infected squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung. Histopathology 38, 355-67.

Chiou HL, Wu MF, Liaw YC. 2003. The presence of human papillomavirus type 16/18 DNA in blood circulation may act as a risk marker of lung cancer in Taiwan. Cancer 97, 1558-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.11191.

Cheng YW, Chiou HL, Chen JT. 2004. Gender difference in human papillomarvirus infection for non-small cell lung cancer in Taiwan. Lung Cancer 46, 165-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2004.03.023.

Zafer E, Ergun MA, Alver G.  2004. Detection and typing of human papillomavirus in non-small cell lung cancer. Respiration 71, 88-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000075655.

Brouchet L, Valmary S, Dahan M. 2005. Detection of oncogenic virus genomes and gene products in lung carcinoma. British Journal of Cancer 92, 743-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6602409.

Coissard CJ, Besson G, Polette MC. 2005. Prevalence of human papillomaviruses in lung carcinomas: a study of 218 cases. Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc 18, 1606-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.3800472.

Jain N, Singh V, Hedau S. 2005. Infection of human papillomavirus type 18 and p53 codon 72 polymorphism in lung cancer patients from India. Chest 128, 3999-4007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1378/chest.128.6.3999.

Lin TS, Lee H, Chen RA. 2005. An association of DNMT3b protein expression with P16INK4a promoter hypermethylation in non-smoking female lung cancer with human papillomavirus infection. Cancer Letter 226, 77-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2004.12.031.

Wu MF, Cheng YW, Lai JC. 2005. Frequent p16INK4a promoter hypermethylation in human papillomavirus-infected female lung cancer in Taiwan. International Journal of Cancer 113, 440-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.20597.

Ciotti M, Giuliani L, Ambrogi V. 2006. Detection and expression of human papillomavirus oncogenes in non-small cell lung cancer. Oncology Reports 16, 183-9.

Fei Y, Yang J, Hsieh WC. 2006. Different Human Papillomavirus 16/18 Infection in Chinese Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Living in Wuhan, China. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 36, 274-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyl017.

Wang J, Cheng YW, Wu DW. 2006. Frequent FHIT gene loss of heterozygosity in human papillomavirus-infected non-smoking female lung cancer in Taiwan. Cancer Letter 235, 18-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2005.03.058.

Aguayo F, Castillo A, Koriyama C. 2007. Human papillomavirus-16 is integrated in lung carcinomas: a study in Chile. British Journal of Cancer 97, 85-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6603848.

Giuliani L, Jaxmar T, Casadio C. 2007. Detection of oncogenic viruses SV40, BKV, JCV, HCMV, HPV and p53 codon 72 polymorphism in lung carcinoma. Lung Cancer 57, 273-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2007.02.019.

Nadji SA, Mokhtari-Azad T, Mahmoodi M. 2007. Relationship between lung cancer and human papillomavirus in north of Iran, Mazandaran province. Cancer Letter 248, 41-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2006.05.016.

Park MS, Chang YS, Shin JH. 2007. The prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in Korean non-small cell lung cancer patients. Yonsei Med Journal 48, 69-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2007.48.1.69.

Buyru N, Altinisik J, Isin M. 2008. p53 codon 72 polymorphism and HPV status in lung cancer. Medical Science Monitor 14, Cr493-7.

Wang Y, Wang A, Jiang R. 2008. Human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 infection is associated with lung cancer patients from the central part of China. Oncology Reports 20, 333-9.

Lim WT, Chuah KL, Leong SS. 2009. Assessment of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in lung adenocarcinoma. Oncology Reports 21, 971-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or_00000310.

Xu Y, Cheng B, Pan H. 2009. [The Relationship between the Status of Human Papillomavirus 16/18 Infection and the Expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Lung.]. Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi 12, 849-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.3779/j.issn.10093419.2009.08.03.

Yu Y, Yang A, Hu S. 2009. Correlation of HPV-16/18 infection of human papillomavirus with lung squamous cell carcinomas in Western China. Oncology Reports 21, 1627-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or_00000397.

Baba M, Castillo A, Koriyama C. 2010. Human papillomavirus is frequently detected in gefitinib-responsive lung adenocarcinomas. Oncol Reports 23, http://dx.doi.org/1085-92.10.3892/or_00000736.

Branica BV, Smojver-Jezek S, Juros Z. 2010. Detection of human papillomaviruses type 16, 18 and 33 in bronchial aspirates of lung carcinoma patients by polymerase chain reaction: a study of 84 cases in Croatia. Collegium Antropologicum 34, 159-62.

Iwakawa R, Kohno T, Enari M. 2010. Prevalence of human papillomavirus 16/18/33 infection and p53 mutation in lung adenocarcinoma. Cancer Science 101, 1891-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1349-7006.2010.01622.x.

Joh J, Jenson AB, Moore GD. 2010. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in non small cell lung cancer. Experimental Moloecular Pathology 89, 222-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexmp.2010.08.001.

Krikelis D, Tzimagiorgis G, Georgiou E. 2010. Frequent presence of incomplete HPV16 E7 ORFs in lung carcinomas: memories of viral infection. Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 49, 169-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2010.07.020.

Simen-Kapeu A, Surcel HM, Koskela P. 2010. Lack of association between human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 infections and female lung cancer. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 19, 1879-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.epi-10-0356.

Wang YH, Chen DJ, Yi TN. 2010. The relationship among human papilloma virus infection, survivin, and p53 gene in lung squamous carcinoma tissue. Saudi Medical Journal 31, 1331-6.

Carpagnano GE, Koutelou A, Natalicchio MI. 2011. HPV in exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer patients. Br J Cancer 105, 1183-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2011.354.

Koshiol J, Rotunno M, Gillison ML. 2011. Assessment of human papillomavirus in lung tumor tissue. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 103, 501-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djr003.

Gatta LB, Balzarini P, Tironi A. 2012. Human papillomavirus DNA and p16 gene in squamous cell lung carcinoma. Anticancer Research 32, 3085-9.

Kato T, Koriyama C, Khan N. 2012. EGFR mutations and human papillomavirus in lung cancer. Lung Cancer 78, 144-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2012.08.011.

Pillai R, Ragin C, Sica G. 2013. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Journal of Clinical Oncology 31, 7560-. http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/jco.2013.31.15_suppl.7560

Van Boerdonk RA, Daniels JM, Bloemena E. 2013. High-risk human papillomavirus-positive lung cancer: molecular evidence for a pattern of pulmonary metastasis. Journal of Thorac Oncology 8, 711-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JTO.0b013e3182897c14.

Yanagawa N, Wang A, Kohler D. 2013. Human papilloma virus genome is rare in North American non-small cell lung carcinoma patients. Lung Cancer 79, 215-20.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2012.11.018.

Yu Y, Yang A, Hu S.  2013. Significance of human papillomavirus 16/18 infection in association with p53 mutation in lung carcinomas. Clinical Respiratory Journal 7, 27-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-699X.2011.00277.x.

Wang JL, Fang CL, Wang M. 2014. Human papillomavirus infections as a marker to predict overall survival in lung adenocarcinoma. International Journal of Cancer 134, 65-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.28349.

Colombara DV, Manhart LE, Carter JJ. 2015. Prior human polyomavirus and papillomavirus infection and incident lung cancer: a nested case-control study. Cancer causes & control : CCC 26, 1835-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-015-0676-3.

Yu Y, Liu X, Yang Y. 2015. Effect of FHIT loss and p53 mutation on HPV-infected lung carcinoma development. Oncology Letter 10, 392-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2015.3213.

Colombara DV, Manhart LE, Carter JJ. 2016. Absence of an association of human polyomavirus and papillomavirus infection with lung cancer in China: a nested case–control study. BMC cancer 16, 342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-016-2381-3.

Fan R, Hou WJ, Zhao YJ. 2016. Overexpression of HPV16 E6/E7 mediated HIF-1α upregulation of GLUT1 expression in lung cancer cells. Tumour Biology 37, 4655-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13277-015-4221-5.

Gupta P, Haldar D, Naru J. 2016. Prevalence of human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus in fine needle aspirates from lung carcinoma: A case-control study with review of literature. Diagn Cytopathol 44, 987-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dc.23613.

Lu Y, Yu LQ, Zhu L. 2016. Expression of HIF-1α and P-gp in non-small cell lung cancer and the relationship with HPV infection. Oncology Letter 12, 1455-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2016.4751.

Robinson LA, Jaing CJ, Pierce Campbell C. 2016. Molecular evidence of viral DNA in non-small cell lung cancer and non-neoplastic lung. British Journal of Cancer 115, 497-504. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2016.213.

Xiong WM, He F, Xiao RD. 2016. [Association between human papillomavirus infection and lung cancer]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 37, 1658-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.02546450.2016.12.020.

Falcone MG, Cuello M, Garcia A. 2017. P1. 02-035 human papillomavirus infection in lung squamous cell carcinoma and correlation to p16 INK4a expression from an Argentine population. Journal of Thoracic Oncology 12, S1937-S8.

de Oliveira THA, do Amaral CM, de França São Marcos B. 2018. Presence and activity of HPV in primary lung cancer. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 144, 2367-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-018-2748-8.

Silva EM, Mariano VS, Pastrez PRA. 2019. Human papillomavirus is not associated to non-small cell lung cancer: data from a prospective cross-sectional study. Infectious Agents and Cancer 14, 18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13027-019-0235-8.

Jaworek H, Koudelakova V, Slavkovsky R. 2020. The absence of high-risk human papillomavirus in Czech non-small cell lung cancer cases. Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia 164, 71-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.5507/bp.2018.079.

Fei HE. 2020. Human papillomavirus infection maybe not associated with primary lung cancer in the Fujian population of China. Thorac Cancer 3, 561-569. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13282.