Dose dependent DNA damage in Cyprinus carpio under sub lethal concentration exposure to pesticides mixture

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/09/2017
Views (336) Download (22)

Dose dependent DNA damage in Cyprinus carpio under sub lethal concentration exposure to pesticides mixture

Faiza Ambreen, Muhammad Javed, Safina Kousar, Rahila Ilyas
Int. J. Biosci.11( 3), 171-177, September 2017.
Certificate: IJB 2017 [Generate Certificate]


Water pollution due to various pesticides is become a global problem now a days because their contents reach in the aquatic ecosystem where it poses considerable toxicological risks to non-target organisms like fish. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the in-vivo induction of DNA damage in Cyprinus carpio (common carp) under sub lethal concentration exposure to binary pesticides mixture (endosulfan – chlorpyrifos) by using single cell gel electrophoresis / comet assay. At first phase, 96-hr LC50 was determined, based on this value four sub-lethal concentrations viz. 1/3rd, 1/4th, 1/5th and 1/6th were calculated. The C. carpio exposed, separately, to aforementioned concentrations for a period of 15 days along with two control groups i.e. negative and positive. The fish peripheral erythrocytes were sampled on day 15th of exposure period from each sub lethal concentrations / treatments for the estimation of DNA damage in. The DNA damage was determined in terms of %age of damaged nuclei, genetic damage index (GDI) and cumulative tail lengths of comets (CTL). Results exhibited statistically significant (p<0.05) effects at different sub lethal concentrations in fish groups along with positive control as compared to negative control. The DNA damage was found to be concentration dependent with highest damage observed at 1/3rd LC50 exposure as compared to control groups in terms of %age of damaged nuclei, GDI and CTL of comets. The present experiment showing the potential genotoxicity of pesticides in common carp (which is non-target organism) and comet assay is useful tool to study the genotoxic effect of water-borne pollutants.


Adeyemi JA, Martins-Junior ADC, Jr FB. 2015. Teratogenicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) co-exposed to arsenic and atrazine. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 172-173, 7-12.

Altinok I, Capkin E, Boran H. 2012. Mutagenic, genotoxic and enzyme inhibitory effects of carbosilfan in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 102, 61-67.

Ambreen F, Javed M. 2015. Assessment of acute toxicity of pesticides mixtures for Cyprinus carpio and Ctenopharyngodon idella. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 47, 133-139.

Ambreen F, Javed M. 2016. Effect of 30 day sub  lethal exposure of cadmium and lead mixture on DNA damage in Fish. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 26, 674-679.

Banudevi S, Krishnamoorthy G, Venkatataman P, Vignesh C, Aruldhas MM,  Arunakaran J. 2006. Role of a tocopherol on antioxidant status in liver, lung and kidney of PCP exposed male albino rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 44, 2040-2046.

Burkepile DE, Moore MT, Holland MM. 2000. Susceptibility of five nontarget organisms to aqueous diazinon exposure. Bulletin Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 64, 114-21.

Cavalcante DGSM, Martinez CBR. Sofia SH. 2008. Genotoxic effects of roundup® on the fish Prochilodus lineatus. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 655, 41-46.

Cavas T. 2008. In vivo genotoxicity of mercury chloride and lead acetate: Micronucleus test on acridine orange stained fish cells. Food and Chemical Toxicology 46, 352-358.

Corredor-Santamaria W, Gomez MS, Velasco-Santamaria YM. 2016. Using genotoxic and haematological biomarkers as an evidence of environmental contamination in the Ocoa River native fish, Villavicencio-meta, Colombia. Springer Plus 5, 351.

Dam K, Garcia SJ, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA. 1999. Neonatal chlorpyrifos exposure alters synaptic development and neuronal activity in cholinergic and catecholaminergic pathways. Developmental Brain Research 116, 9-20.

Dutta HM,  Marcelino J, Richmonds C. 1992. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity and optomotor behavior in bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus exposed to different concentrations of diazinon. Archives International Physiology Biochemistry and Biophysics 100, 331-334.

Gomes J, Dawodu AH, Llyod O, Revitt DM, Anilal SV. 1999. Hepatic injury and disturbed amino acid metabolism in mice following prolonged exposure to organophosphorus pesticides. Human Experimental Toxicology 18, 33-37.

Guilherme S, Santos MA, Barroso C, Gaivao I, Pacheco M. 2012. Differential genotoxicity of roundup® formulation and its constituents in blood cells of fish (Anguilla anguilla): Considerations on chemical interactions and DNA damaging mechanisms. Ecotoxicology 21, 1381-1390.

Hartwell LH, Hood L, Goldberg ML, Reynolds AE, Silver LM, Veres RC. 2000. Genetics: From Genes to Genomes. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Jordan MS, Reinecke SA, Reinecke AJ. 2013. Biomarker responses and morpho-logical effects in juvenile tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus following sequentialexposure to the organophosphate azinphosmethyl. Aquatic Toxicology 144, 133-140.

Jose S, Jayesh P, Mohandas A, Philip R, Singh ISB. 2011. Application of primary haemocyte culture of Penaeus monodon in the assessment of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of heavy metals and pesticides. Marine Environment Research 71, 169-177.

Klobucar GIV, Stambuk A, Pavlica M, Peric MS, Hackenberger BK, Hylland K. 2010. Genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environments using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ecotoxicology 19, 77-84.

Kumar R, Nagpure NS, Kushwaha B, Srivastava SK, Lakra WS. 2009. Investigation of the genotoxicity of malathion to freshwater teleost fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) using the micronucleus test and comet assay. Archives Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 58, 123-30.

Lakra WS, Nagpure NS. 2009. Genotoxico-logical  studies in fishes: A review. Indian Journal Animal Sciences 79, 93-98.

Lourenco J, Pereira R, Goncalves F, Mendo S. 2013. Metal bioaccumulation, genotoxicity and gene expression in the European wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) inhabiting an abandoned uranium mining area. Science of Total Environment 443, 673-680.

Monteiro DA, Almeida JA, Ratnin FT, Kalinin AL. 2006. Oxidative stress biomarkers in the freshwater characid fish, Brycon cephalus, exposed to organophosphorous insecticide folisuper 600 (methyl parathion). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C-Toxicology and Pharmacology 143, 141-149.

Mustafa SA, Al-Subiai SN, Davies SJ, Jha AN. 2011. Hypoxia-induced oxidative DNA damage links with higher level biological effects including specific growth rate in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Ecotoxicology 20, 1455-1466.

Naqvi SNH, Tabassum R, Khan MF, Yasmin N, Nurulain SM, Burney AA. 2007. Toxic, residual, and teratomorphic effect of a neem extract (N-9) in comparison to coopex 25 WP (Permethrin+Bioallethrin) against Musca domestica L. (Holland Strain). Turkish Journal of Zoology 31, 127-130.

Nwani CD, Lakra WS, Nagpure NS, Kumar R, Kushwaha B, Srivastava SK. 2010. Mutagenic and genotoxic effects of carbosulfan in freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) using micronucleus assay and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48, 202-208.

Oliveira M, Maria VL, Ahmad I, Serafim A, Bebianno MJ, Pacheco M, Santos MA. 2009. Contamination assessment of a coastal lagoon (Ria de Averiro, Portugal) using defence and damage biochemical indicators in gill of Liza aurata – an integrated biomarker approach. Environmental Pollution 157, 959-967.

Ondarza PM, Gonzalez M, Fillmann G, Miglioranza KSB. 2014. PBDEs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides distribution in edible fish from Negro River basin. Argentinean Patagonia. Chemosphere 94, 135-42.

Singh NP, Mccoy MT, Tice RR, Schneider EL. 1988. A simple technique for the quantization of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells. Experimental Cell Research 175, 184-191.

Steel RGD, Torrie JH, Dinkkey DA. 1996. Principles and procedures of statistics (3rd Ed.) McGraw Hill Book Co., Singapore.

Susan TA, Sobha K, Tilak KS. 2010. A study on acute toxicity, oxygen consumption and behavioural changes in the three Major carps, Labeo rohita (Ham), Catla catla (Ham) and Cirrhina mrigala (Ham) exposed to Fenvalerate. Bioresearch Bulletin 1, 33-40.

Tope AM, Rogers PF. 2009. Evaluation of protective effects of sulforaphane on DNA damage caused by exposure to low levels of pesticide mixture using comet assay. Journal of Environmental Science and Health 44, 657-662.