Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | January 1, 2015

| Download 1

Dynamics of growth and phytomass allocation in seedlings of Pistacia atlantica desf. versus Pistacia vera L. under salt stress

S. Ben Hamed, E. Lefi

Key Words:

Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.6(1), 16-27, January 2015


IJAAR 2015 [Generate Certificate]


Salinity represents a major environmental constraint which can severely limit plant establishment in the arid and semi-arid areas in Tunisia. The present work was carried out to study the response of Pistacia vera L. and Pistacia atlantica Desf. seedlings to salt stress. Evaluation of salinity effects on both species was investigated using five increasing NaCl concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mM) during 60 days. The exposure to NaCl at seedlings stages, affects the majority of the studied parameters. Morphological parameters, such as height of shoot, number of green leaves, leaf area and consequently, phytomass allocation were significantly decreased. Additionally, P. vera accelerated leaf senescence. Both species showed a preferential allocation of the resources in favor of the roots for concentrations of NaCl lower than 40 mM. Whereas, only P. atlantica maintained a root growth for higher concentrations. Under salt stress, the specific leaf area decreased in P. atlantica (p<0.001) and translate a mechanism of tolerance to salinity. It appeared that both species tolerate concentrations lower than 40 mM of NaCl. However, for higher concentrations, P. atlantica seedlings are more tolerant.


Copyright © 2015
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Dynamics of growth and phytomass allocation in seedlings of Pistacia atlantica desf. versus Pistacia vera L. under salt stress

Abbruzzese G, Beritognolo I, Muleo R, Piazzai M, Sabatti M, Mugnozza GS, Kuzminsky E. 2009. Leaf morphological plasticity and stomatal conductance in three Populus alba L. genotypes subjected to salt stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany 66, 38- 388.

Albacete A, Ghanem ME, Martinez-Andujar C, Acosta M, Sanchez-Bravo J, Martinez V, Lutts S, Dodd IC, Perez-Alfocea F. 2008. Hormonal changes in relation to biomass partitioning and shoot growth impairment in salinized tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants. Journal of Experimental Botany 59, 4119- 4131.

Atkinson CJ, Else MA, Taylor L, Dover CJ. 2003. Root and stem hydraulic conductivity as determinants of growth potential in grafted trees of apple (Malus pumila Mill.) Journal of Experimental Botany 54, 1221- 1229.

Bartels D, Sunkar R. 2005. Drought and Salt Tolerance in Plants. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 24, 23- 58.

Behboudian M, Walker R, Torokfalvy. 1986. Effect of water stress and salinity on photosynthesis of pistachio. Scientiae Horticulturae 29, 251- 261.

Ben Ahmed C, Ben Rouina B, Boukhris M, 2008. Changes in water relations, photosynthetic activity and proline accumulation in one-year-old olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv.Chemlali) in response to NaCl salinity. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 30, 553- 560.

Benmahioul B, Daguin F, Meriem Kaid-Harche M. 2009. Effet du stress salin sur la germination et la croissance in vitro du pistachier (Pistacia vera L.). Comptes rendus Biologies 332, 752- 758.

Bouraoui N, Grignon C, Zid E. 1998. Effet de NaCl sur la croissance et la respiration racinaire du triticale (X-Triticosecale wittmack). Cahiers Agriculture7, 372- 376.

Chaieb M, Boukhris M. 1998. Flore succincte et illustrée des zones arides sahariennes des zones aride de Tunisie. ATPNE, 145.

Chartzoulakis KS. 2005. Salinity and olive: Growth, salt tolerance, photosynthesis and yield. Agricultural Water Management 78, 108- 121.

Chaves MM, Pereira JS, Maroco J, Rodrigues ML, Ricardo CPP, Osório ML., Carvalho I, Faria T, Pinheiro C. 2002. How plants cope with water stress in the field. Photosynthesis and growth. Annals of Botany 89, 907- 916.

Chelli-Chaabouni A, Ben Mosbah A, Maalej M, Gargouri K, Gargouri-Bouzid R, Drira N. 2010. In vitro salinity tolerance of two pistachio rootstocks: Pistacia vera L. and P. atlantica Desf. Environmental and Experimental Botany 69, 302- 312.

Cohen S, Naor A. 2002. The effect of three rootstocks on water use, canopy conductance and hydraulic parameters of apple trees and predicting canopy from hydraulic conductance. Plant, Cell and Environment 25, 17- 28.

Colla G, Roupahel Y, Cardarelli M. 2006. Effect of salinity on yield, fruit quality, leaf gas exchange, and mineral composition of grafted water melon plants. Hortscience 41, 622- 627.

Correia PJ, Gamaa F, Pestana M, Martins-Louciaño MA. 2010. Tolerance of young (Ceratonia siliqua L.) carob rootstock to NaCl. Agricultural Water Management 97, 910- 916.

Cramer GR, Lynch J, Laüchli A, Epstein E. 1987. Influx of Na+, K+, and Ca 2+ into roots of salt stressed cotton seedlings: effects of supplemental Ca2+. Plant Physiology 83, 510- 516.

Curtis PS, Läuchli A, 1987. The effect of moderate salt stress on leaf anatomy in Hibiscus cannabinus (Kenaf) and its relation to leaf area. American Journal of Botany 74, 538- 542.

Ebert G. 2000. Salinity problems in sub-tropical fruit production. Acta Horticulturae 531, 99-105.

Evelin H, Kapoor R, Giri B. 2009. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviation of salt stress: A review. Annals of Botany 104, 1263-1280.

Flowers TJ. 2004. Improving crop salt tolerance. Journal of Experimental Botany 55, 307- 319.

Germana C. 1997. The response of pistachio trees to water stress as affected by two different rootstocks. Acta Horticulturae 449, 513- 519.

Ghanem ME, Albacete A, Martinez-Andujar C, Acosta M, Romero-Aranda R, Dodd IC, Lutts S, Perez-Alfocea F. 2008. Hormonal changes during salinity-induced leaf senescence in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Journal of Experimental Botany 59, 3039- 3050.

Ghorbel A, Ben Salem-Fnayou A, Chatibi M, Twey A. 1998. Genetic resources of Pistacia in Tunisia. Toward a comprehensive documentation and use of Pistacia genetic diversity in central and west Asia, North Africa and Europe. In: Padulosi S, Hadj Hassan A. eds. Report of the IPGRI workshop, 14-17 December 1998, Irbid Jordan.

Gijón MC, Gimenez C, Perez-López D, Guerrero J, Couceiro JF, Moriana A. 2010. Rootstock influences the response of pistachio (Pistacia vera L. cv. Kerman) to water stress and rehydration. Scientia Horticulturae 125, 666- 671.

Jbira N, Chaïbia W, Ammara S, Jemmalib A, Ayadia A. 2001. Root growth and lignification of two wheat species differing in their sensitivity to NaCl, in response to salt stress. Life Sciences 324, 863- 868.

Jones OP. 1971. Effects of rootstocks and interstock on the xylem sap composition in apple trees: effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content. Annals of Botany 35, 825- 836.

Kamboj JS, Blake PS, Quinlan JD, Baker DA. 1999. Identification and quantification by GC-MS of zeatin and zeatin riboside in xylem sap from rootstock and scion of grafted apple trees. Plant Growth Regulation 28, 199- 205.

Karakas B, Bianco RL, Rieger M. 2000. Association of leaf marginal scorch with sodium accumulation in salt-stressed peach. Hortcultural Science 35, 83-84.

Karimi HR, Kafkas S. 2011. Genetic relationships among Pistacia species studied by SAMPL markers. Plant Systematics and Evolution 297, 207-212.

Karimi S, Rahemi M, Maftoun M, Eshghi, Tavallali V. 2009. Effects of Long term Salinity on Growth and Performance of Two Pistachio (Pistacia L.) Rootstocks. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 3, 1630- 1639.

Kchaou H, Larbi A, Gargouri K, Chaieb M, Morales F, Msallem M. 2010. Assessment of tolerance to NaCl salinity of five olive cultivars based on growth characteristics and Na+ and Cl exclusion mechanisms. Scientia Horticulturae 124, 306- 315.

Kuiper D, Schuit J, Kuiper PJC. 1990. Actual cytokinin concentrations in plant tissue as an indicator for salt resistance in cereals. Plant Soil 123, 243- 250.

Kurth E, Cramer GR, Lauchli A, Epstein E. 1986. Effects of NaCl and CaCl2 on cell enlargement and cell production in cotton roots. Plant Physiology 82, 1102- 1106.

Liu GF, Liu GJ, Yang CP, Wang HM. 1998. The analysis of hormonal change and salt resistant ability of tree species under salt stress. Journal of Northeast Agricultural University 26, 1- 4.

Melgar JC, Benlloch M, Fernandez-Escobar R. 2006. Calcium increases sodium exclusion in olive plants. Scientiae Horticulturae 109, 303- 305.

Miyamoto S, Gobran GR, Piela K. 1985. Salt effects on seedling growth and ion uptake of three pecan rootstock cultivars. Agronomie 77, 383- 388.

Mulholland BJ, Taylor IB, Jackson AC, Thompson AJ. 2003. Can ABA mediate responses of salinity stressed tomato. Environmental and Experimental Botany 50, 17- 28.

Munns R. 2002. Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant, Cell and Environment 25, 239-250.

Olien WC, Lakso AN. 1986. Effect of rootstock on apple (Malus domestica) tree water relations. Physiologia Plantarum. 67, 421- 430.

Parida AK, Das AB, Mittra B. 2003. Effects of NaCl stress on the structure, pigment complex compsition and photosynthetic activity of mangrove Bruguiera parviflora chloroplasts. Photosynthetica 41, 191- 200.

Parida AK, Das AB. 2005. Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants: A review. Ecotoxicology and Environnemental Safety 60, 324- 349.

Picchioni GA, Graham CJ. 2001. Salinity, growth and ion uptake selectivity of container-growth Crataegus opaca. Scientiae Horticulturae 90, 151-166.

Poorter H, Garnier E. 1999. Ecological significance of inherent variation in relative growth rate. In: Pugnaire F, Valladares X, eds. Handbook of functional plant ecology. New York, USA: Marcel Dekker, 81- 120.

Ranjbar A, Damme PV, Samson R, Lemeur R. 2002. Leaf water status and photosynthetic gas exchange of Pistacia khinjuk and P. mutica exposed to osmotic drought stress. Acta Horticulturae 591, 423- 428.

Rejili M, Vadel AM, Guetet A, Neffatti M. 2007. Effect of NaCl on the growth and the ionic balance K+/Na+ of two populations of Lotus creticus (L.) (Papilionaceae). South African Journal of Botany 73, 623- 631.

Rengasamy P. 2010. Soil processes affecting crop production in salt-affected soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research 37, 613- 620.

Rieger M. 1995. Offsetting effects of reduced root hydraulic conductivity and osmotic adjustment following drought. Tree Physiolgy 15, 379- 385.

Sairam RK, Veerabhadra RK, Srivastava GC. 2002. Differential response ofwheat genotypes to long term salinity stress in relation to oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and osmolyte concentration. Plant Science 163, 1037- 1046.

Salah IB, Albacete A, Messedi D, Gandour M, Andujar CM, Zribi K, Martinez V, Abdelly C, Perez-Alfocea F. 2013. Hormonal responses of nodulated Medicago ciliaris lines differing in salt tolerance. Environmental and Experimental Botany 86, 35- 43.

Sari I, Baltaci Y, Bagci C, Davutoglu V, Erel O, Celik H, Ozer O, Nur MD, Aksoy, M. 2010. Effect of pistachio diet on lipid parameters, endothelial function, inflammation, and oxidative status: A prospective study. Nutrition 26, 399- 404.

Shannon MC, Grieve CM. 1999. Tolerance of vegetable crops to salinity. Scientia Horticulturae 78, 5- 38.

Sun J, Chen S, Dai S, Wang R, Li N, Shen X. 2009. NaCl-induced alternations of cellular and tissue ion fluxes in roots of salt-resistant and salt-sensitive poplar species. Plant Physiology 149, 1141-1153.

Tattini M, Traversi ML, Castelli S, Biricolti S, Guidi L, Massai R. 2009. Contrasting response mechanisms to root-zone salinity in three co-occurring Mediterranean evergreens: a physiological and biochemical study. Functional Plant Biology 36, 551- 563.

Tavakkoli E, Fatehi F, Coventry S, Rengasamy P, McDonald GK. 2011. Additive effects of Na+ and Cl ions on barley growth under salinity stress. Journal of Experimental Botany 62, 2189- 2203.

Tavallali V, Rahemi M. 2007. Effects of Rootstock on Nutrient Acquisition by Leaf, Kernel and Quality of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science 2, 240- 246.

Tavallali V, Rahemi M, Panahi B. 2008. Calcium induces salinity tolerance in pistachio rootstocks. Fruits 63, 285- 296.

Tejera NA, Soussi M, Luch C. 2006. Physiological and nutritional indicators of tolerance to salinity in chickpea plants growing under symbiotic conditions. Environnemental and Experimental Botany 58, 17-24.

Termaat A, Passora JB, Munns R. 1985. Shoot turgor does not limit shoot growth of NaCl affected wheat and barley. Plant Physiology 77, 869- 872.

Tomaino A, Martorana M, Arcoraci T, Monteleone D, Giovinazzo C, Saija A. 2010. Antioxidatif activity and phenolic profile of pistachio (Pistacia vera L., variety Bronte) seeds and skins. Biochimie 92, 1115- 1122.

Türkan I, Demiral T. 2009. Recent developments in understanding salinity tolerance, uptake of three pecan rootstock cultivars. Agronomie Journal 77, 383- 388.

Walker RR, Törökfalvy E, Behboodian MH. 1987. Uptake and distribution of chloride. Sodium and potassium ions and growth of salt-treated pistachio plants. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 38, 383- 394.

Wang Y, Mopper S, Hasenstein KH. 2001. Effects of salinity on endogenous ABA, IAA, JA, and SA in Iris hexagona . Journal of Chemical Ecolgy 27, 327- 342.

Weibel A, Johnson RS, DeJong TM. 2003. Comparative vegetative growth responses of two peach cultivars grown on size-controlling versus standard rootstocks. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science 128, 463- 471.

Wu QS, Zou YN, Liu W, Ye XF, Zai HF, Zhao LJ. 2010. Alleviation of salt stress in citrus seedlings inoculated with mycorrhiza: changes in leaf antioxidant defense systems. Plant, Soil and Environment. 56, 470- 475.

Yamaguchi T, Blumwald E. 2005. Developing salt-tolerant crop plants: Challenges and opportunities. Trends Plant Science 10, 615- 620.

Zahran HH. 1999. Rhizobium-legume symbiosis and nitrogen fixation under severe conditions and in an arid climate. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 63(4), 968- 989.

Zhu C, Schraut D, Hartung W, Schaffner AR. 2005. Differential responses of maize MIP genes to salt stress and ABA. Journal of Experimental Botany 56, 2971-2981.

Zhu JK. 2001. Plant salt tolerance. Trends in Plant Science 6, 66- 71.

Zorb C, Geilfus CM, Muhling KH, Ludwig-Muller J. 2013. The influence of salt stress on ABA and auxin concentrations in two maize cultivars differing in salt resistance. Journal of Plant Physiology 170, 220- 224.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background