Int. J. Biosci.2(9), 71-76, September 2012
Cardiovascular diseases are becoming more frequent occurrence in the third world. There are tell-tale signs that can be seen long before they occur. Thus forty volunteer medical students, comprising of 18 females and 22 males between the ages of 18 and 30 years, were assessed for cardiac fitness using ECG. All the volunteers were subjected to exercise stress test using bicycle ergometer. They exercised to exhaustion or attainment of 85% HRmax. ECG was recorded pre and post-exercise. The study compares the findings in the males to that of the females. Results showed that pre-exercise in males, 60% had normal ECG, 8% had sinus bradycardia, 4% sinus arrhythmia and 8% left atrial enlargement. Other findings included 4% right atrial deviation, 4% short PR interval, 4% premature ventricular contraction, 4% rare premature atrial contraction and 4% had early repolarisation. Post-exercise ECG revealed 36% normal ECG, 44% had sinus tachycardia. In the females, pre-exercise findings revealed 94.4% normal ECG and 5.6% had sinus arrhythmia. Post-exercise findings showed 66.7% normal ECG, 22.2% had sinus tachycardia, 5.6% sinus arrhythmia and 5.6% rare premature atrial contraction. Abnormal ECG findings are prevalent among young Nigerians and there is need to focus of this group to prevent cardiac events in the future.
Agarwal, S. K., G. Heiss, P. M. Rautaharju, E. Shahar, M. W. Massing, and R. J. Simpson. 2010. Premature Ventricular Complexes and the Risk of Incident Stroke. Stroke 41, 588-593.
Braunwald, E. [ed.] 2011. Heart Disease. A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. W. B. Sanders Company., Philadelphia.
Bruce, R., T. DeRouen, and K. Hossack. 1980. Value of maximal exercise tests in risk assessment of primary coronary heart disease events in healthy men. Five years’ experience of the Seattle heart watch study. American Journal of Cardiology 46, 371 – 8.
Chou, R., B. Arora, T. Dana, R. Fu, M. Walker, and L. Humphrey. 2011. Screening Asymptomatic Adults With Resting or Exercise Electrocardiography: A Review of the Evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Annals of Internal Medicine 155, 375-385.
Darrow, M. 1999. Ordering and Understanding the Exercise Stress Test. American Family Physician 59, 401-140.
Denes, P., J. C. Larson, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Prineas, and P. Greenland. 2007. Major and Minor ECG Abnormalities in Asymptomatic Women and Risk of Cardiovascular Events and Mortality. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 297, 978-985.
Ekelund, L. G., C. M. Suchindran, R. P. McMahon, G. Heiss, A. S. Leon, D. W. Romhilt, C. L. Rubenstein, J. L. Probstfield, and J. F. Ruwitch. 1989. Coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality in hypercholesterolemic men predicted from an exercise test: the Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial. Journal of American College of Cardiology 14, 556-563.
Epstein, A. E., J. P. DiMarco, K. A. Ellenbogen, N. A. M. Estes, R. A. Freedman, L. S. Gettes, A. M. Gillinov, G. Gregoratos, S. C. Hammill, D. L. Hayes, M. A. Hlatky, L. K. Newby, R. L. Page, M. H. Schoenfeld, M. J. Silka, L. W. Stevenson, and M. O. Sweeney. 2008. ACC/AHA/HRS 2008 Guidelines for Device-Based Therapy of Cardiac Rhythm Abnormalities: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the ACC/AHA/NASPE 2002 Guideline Update for Implantation of Cardiac Pacemakers and Antiarrhythmia Devices) Developed in Collaboration With the American Association for Thoracic Surgery and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 51, e1-e62.
Erikssen, G., J. Bodegard, J. r. V. j. BjÃ¸rnholt, K. LiestÃ¸l, D. S. Thelle, and J. Erikssen. 2004. Exercise testing of healthy men in a new perspective: from diagnosis to prognosis. European Heart Journal 25, 978-986.
Fletcher, G. F., G. J. Balady, E. A. Amsterdam, B. Chaitman, R. Eckel, J. Fleg, V. F. Froelicher, A. S. Leon, I. L. PiÃ±a, R. Rodney, D. A. Simons-Morton, M. A. Williams, and T. Bazzarre. 2001. Exercise Standards for Testing and Training. Circulation 104, 1694-1740.
Greenland, P., J. S. Alpert, G. A. Beller, E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Budoff, Z. A. Fayad, E. Foster, M. A. Hlatky, J. Hodgson, F. G. Kushner, M. S. Lauer, L. J. Shaw, S. C. J. Smith, A. J. Taylor, W. S. Weintraub, and N. K. Wenger. 2010. 2010 ACCF/AHA Guideline for Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Asymptomatic Adults: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 122, 2748-2764.
Guyton, A. C., and J. E. Hall [eds.]. 2010. Textbook of Medical Physiology. Elsevier.
Ian, A. S. 2009. Evaluating cardiovascular risk assessment for asymptomatic people. BMJ 338, a2844
Jolly, M. A., D. M. Brennan, and L. Cho. 2011. Impact of Exercise on Heart Rate Recovery / Clinical Perspective. Circulation 124, 1520-1526.
Jouven, X., M. Zureik, M. Desnos, D. Courbon, and P. DucimetiÃ¨re. 2000. Long-Term Outcome in Asymptomatic Men with Exercise-Induced Premature Ventricular Depolarizations. New England Journal of Medicine 343, 826-833.
Lyerly, G. W., X. Sui, T. S. Church, C. J. Lavie, G. A. Hand, and S. N. Blair. 2010. Maximal Exercise Electrocardiographic Responses and Coronary Heart Disease Mortality Among Men With Metabolic Syndrome. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 85, 239-246.
McArdle, W. D., F. I. Katch, and V. L. Katch [eds.]. 1994. Essentials of exercise Physiology. Lea and Febger. , Philadelphia.
O’Malley, P. G., and R. F. Redberg. 2010. Risk Refinement, Reclassification, and Treatment Thresholds in Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: Incremental Progress but Significant Gaps Remain. Archives of Internal Medicine 170, 1602-1603.
PatanÃ¨, S., F. Marte, and A. Mancuso. 2008. Axis deviation without left bundle branch block. International Journal of Cardiology 140, e34-e35.
Peter, J. B. 2010. Exercise ECG useful in finding coronary artery disease. BMJ 340, c1971
Schlant, R., G. Friesinger, and J. Leonard. 1996. Clinical competence in exercise testing. A statement for physicians from the ACP/ACC/AHA Task Force on Clinical Privileges in Cardiology. Journal of American College of Cardiology 16, 1061–5.
Sin, P. Y. W., M. R. Webber, D. C. Galletly, P. N. Ainslie, S. J. Brown, C. K. Willie, A. Sasse, P. D. Larsen, and Y.-C. Tzeng. 2010. Interactions between heart rate variability and pulmonary gas exchange efficiency in humans. Experimental Physiology 95, 788-797.
Uhm, J.-S., I.-U. Hwang, Y.-S. Oh, M.-S. Choi, S.-W. Jang, W.-S. Shin, J.-H. Kim, M.-Y. Lee, T.-H. Rho, Y.-H. Kim, J.-H. Sung, Y.-S. Lee, J.-G. Cho, D.-J. Oh, D.-K. Kim, J. Namgung, K.-M. Park, Y.-H. Kim, Y.-N. Kim, H.-E. Lim, T.-J. Cha, Y.-K. On, D.-G. Shin, H.-N. Pak, and N.-H. Kim. 2011. Prevalence of Electrocardiographic Findings Suggestive of Sudden Cardiac Death Risk in 10,867 Apparently Healthy Young Korean Men. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 34, 717-723.