Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Ecological gradient analysis and community structure of macrofungi in different climatic zones of Western Himalayas, Pakistan

Research Paper | January 1, 2020

| Download 49

Faizul Haq

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.16( 1), 72-82, January 2020


JBES 2020 [Generate Certificate]


This paper communicates the analytical exploration of macrofungi of the western Himalayan region of Pakistan. The study was aimed to explore species diversity and community structure of macrofungi based on edaphic, topographic and climatic factors. Monte Carlo test were used for indicator species (P value ≤ 0.05). Sixty species of macrofongi were recorded from 65 stands during 2016-2018. The diversity index and species richness ​​were highest in the humid temperate zone. Multivariate analysis ranked the diversity of macrofungi from 65 stands to 5 myco-communities based on indicator species. Cluster analysis showed that among the environmental variables, the significant result was the contribution of temperature and pH (P= 0.0002), followed by moisture (P= 0.0004), organic matter (P= 0.0006), phosphorus (P= 0.04) and saturation (P= 0.12). Amanita oblongospora, Amanita pantherina, Bovista plumbea, Lycoperdon alpinum, Lycoperdon excipuliforma and Russula ilicis have shown significant results with more than two environmental variables. The diversity index of myco-communities significantly responds to climatic, edaphic, topographical and anthropogenic stimuli.


Copyright © 2020
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Ecological gradient analysis and community structure of macrofungi in different climatic zones of Western Himalayas, Pakistan

Ahmad H. 2009. Ecology and biodiversity of the Siren River catchment. Cult. Biol. Resour. Pak 1-7.

Ahmed M, Hussain T, Sheikh AH, Hussain SS, Siddiqui MF. 2006. Phytosociology and structure of Himalayan forests from different climatic zones of Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot 38(2), 361-383.

Ahmed S, Iqbal SH, Khalid AN. 1997. Fungi of Pakistan. Sultan Ahmad Mycological society of Pakistan, Department of Botany, University of Punjab Quid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590, Pakistan pp. 248.

Akbar M, Ahmed M, Afzal M, Choudhary F, Zafar MU, Hussain A. 2010. Phytosociology and structure of some forests of Skardu District of Karakorum Range of Pakistan. Am.-Eurasian J. Agric. Environ. Sci 9(5), 576-583.

Aytok O, Yilmaz KT, Ortas I, Cakan H. 2013. Changes in mycorrhizal spore and root colonization of coastal dune vegetation of the Seyhan Delta in the postcultivation phase. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 37(1), 52-61.

Blackwell M. 2011. The Fungi: 1,2,3,….5.1 million species. Amarican J. Bot 98(3), 426-438.

Brown C, Law R, Illian JB, Burslem DFRP. 2011. Linking ecological processes with spatial and non-spatial patterns in plant communities. J. Eco 99(6), 1402-1414.

Buckland ST, Borchers DL, Johnston A, Henrys PA, Marques TA. 2007. Line transect methods for plant surveys. Biometrics 63 (4), 989-998.

Buczacki S. 1989. New Generation Guide to the Fungi of Britain and Europe. William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd, Glasgow pp. 320.

Champion, Harry G, Seth SK. 1965. Forest Types of Pakistan. Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar pp. 233.

Chen L, Tang L, Zeng DH, Jiang FQ. 2015. Ecological land classification: A quantitative classification and ordination of forest communities adjacent to a rapidly expanding urban area in southeast coastal China. Acta Ecologica Sinica 35, 46-51.

Demoulin V, Merriott JVR. 1981. Key to the Gasteromycetes of Great Britain. Bull. Mycol. Soc 15(1), 37-43.

Fiaz M. 2013. Species diversity of Basidiomycetes of District Mansehra. PhD thesis department of Botany, Hazara University Mansehra.

Fonge BA, Focho DA, Egbe EA, Tening AS, Fongod AN, Neba GA, Mvondo ZA. 2011. The effects of climate and edaphic factors on plant colonisation of lava flows on Mount Cameroon. J. Eco. Nat. Env 3(8), 255-267.

Gates GM, Mohammed C, Wardlaw T, Ratkowsky DA, Davidson NJ. 2011. The ecology and diversity of wood-inhabiting macro fungi in a native Eucalyptus obliqua forest of Southern Tasmania, Australia. Fungal Ecol 4, 56-67.

Ghani AEM, Amer W. 2003. Soil-vegetation relationships in a coastal desert plain of southern Sinai, Egypt. J. Arid Env 55(4), 607-628.

Guan WB, Zeng DH, Jiang FQ. 2000. Ecological study on relationship between desertification process and vegetation dynamics in west of northeast China: vegetation classification, Chin. J. Entomol 11(6), 907.

Haq F. 2012. The Critically Endangered Flora and Fauna of District Battagram Pakistan. Advances in Life Sciences 2(4), 118-123.

Haq F. 2015. Phytosociological attributes of different vegetational zones of Nandiar Khuwar catchment area. Ph.D. Thesis Department of Botany, Hazara University, Pakistan.

Haq F. 2018. Vegetation mapping above tree line in Nandiar valley Western Himalayas. A multivariate approach. Acta Ecologica Sinica 38, 15-20.

Haq F, Ahmad H, Alam M. 2011. Traditional uses of medicinal plants of Nandiar Khuwarr catchment (District Battagram), Pakistan. J. Med. Plants Res 5(1), 39-48.

Haq F, Ahmad H, Alam M, Ahmad I, Ullah R. 2010. Species diversity of vascular plants of Nandiar valley western Himalaya, Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot., Special Issue (S.I. Ali Festschrift) 42, 213-229.

Haq F, Ahmed H, Iqbal Z. 2015a. Vegetation composition and ecological gradients of subtropical-moist temperate ecotonal forests of Nandiar Khuwar catchment, Pakistan. Bangladesh J. Bot 44(2), 267-276.

Haq F, Ahmed H, Iqbal Z. 2015b. Vegetation description and phytoclimatic gradients of subtropical forests of Nandiar Khuwar catchment District Battagram. Pak. J. Bot 47(4), 1399-1405.

Haq F, Ahmed H, Iqbal Z, Alam M, Aksoy A. 2017. Multivariate approach to the classification and ordination of the forest ecosystem of Nandiar valley western Himalayas. Ecological Indicators 80, 232-241.

Hawksworth DL. 2001. The magnitude of fungal diversity: the 1, 5 million species revisited. Mycological Research 105, 1422-1432.

Hill MO. 1979. DECORANA–a FORTRAN program for detrended correspondence analysis and reciprocal averaging. Ithaca, NY.: Ecology and Systematics, Cornell University.

Ilyas M, Shinwari ZK, Qureshi R. 2012. Vegetation composition and threats to the montane temperate forest ecosystem of Qalagai hills Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot 44, 113-122.

Jurisic B, Vidicki B, Bojat NC, Puvača N. 2014. Floristic diversity of Posavina’s floodplain forests in Serbia and their wider geographical context. Pak. J. Bot 46(2), 447-456.

Khan SM, Page S, Ahmad H, Harper D. 2014. Ethno-ecological importance of plant biodiversity in mountain ecosystems with special emphasis on indicator species of a Himalayan valley in the northern Pakistan. Eco. Ind 37, 175-185.

Khan W, Khan SM, Ahmad H, Ahmad Z, Page S. 2016. Vegetation mapping and multivariate approach to the indicator species of a forest ecosystem : a case study from the Thandiani sub forest division in the Western Himalayas. Eco. Ind 71, 336-351.

Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Staplers JA. 2008. Ainsworth and Bisby’s dictionary of fungi, 10th edition CABI, Wallingford.

Laurance WF, Oliveira AA, Laurance SG, Condit R, Nascimento HEM, Thorin ACS, Lovejoy TE, Andrade A, Angelo SD, Ribeiro JE, Dick CW. 2004. Pervasive alteration of tree communities in undisturbed Amazonian forests. Nature 428, 171-175.

Leelavathy KM, Ganesh PN. 2000. Polyporales of Kerala. Daya publishing house Delhi-110035 pp. 164.

Muller GM, Qiu XW, Yong QH, Shou YG, Ruth AG, Ryras V. 2001. Assessing biogeographic relationship between North American and Chinese macrofungi. Journal of biogeoghraphy 28, 271-281.

Murakami Y. 1993. Larger fungi from Northern Pakistan. Pak. Vol. 2. (Eds.): T. Nakaike and S. Malik. Nat. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 105-147.

Peter F, Erik LJ. 1992. Vegetation types and patterns in Senegal based on multivariate analysis of field and NOAA-AVHRR satellite data. J. Veg. Sci 3, 535-544.

Pharswan K, Mehta JP, Subodh. 2010. Floristic composition and biological spectrum of vegetation in alpine meadows of Kedarnath: Garhwal Himalaya. Nat. Sci 8(7), 109-115.

Razaq A, Shahzad S, Ali H, Noor A. 2014. New reported species of macro fungi from Pakistan. Journal of agri-food and applied 2(3), 67-71.

Redhead SA. 1997. Macrofungi of British Columbia: requirements for inventory. Res. Br., B.C. Min. For., and Wildl. Br. B.C. Min. Envirn., Lands and Parks. Victoria, B.C. Work pp. 119.

Saima S, Dasti AA, Hussain F, Wazir SM, Malik SA. 2009. Floristic compositions along an 18-km long transect in Ayubia National Park District Abbottabad, Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot 41(5), 2115-2127.

Shibata H. 1992. Higher Basidiomycetes from Pakistan. pp. 145-164. In: Cryptogamic flora of Pakistan. Vol. 1. (Eds.): T. Nakaike and S. Malik. Nat. Sci. Mus. Tokyo. Surcek M. 1988. The illustrated book of mushrooms and fungi. Octopus Book, London pp. 311.

Siddiqui MF, Ahmed M, Wahab M, Khan N, Uzair M. 2009. Phytosociology of Pinus roxburghii Sargent. (Chir pine) in lesser Himalayan and Hindu kush range of Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot 41(5), 2357-2369.

Sultana K, Shinwari ZK, Iftikhar F. 2007. Diversity of edible mushrooms in Pakistan. Pak. J. Agric. Res 20(1), 88-91.

Swann EC, Taylor JW. 1993. Higher taxa of Basidiomycetes. An 18S rRNA gene perspective. Mycologia 85, 923-936.

Tavili A, Jafari M. 2009. Interrelations between plants and environmental variables. Int. J. Environ. Res 3, 239-246.

Ter-Braak CJF. 1986. Canonical correspondence analysis: a new eigenvector technique for multivariate direct gradient analysis. Ecology 67, 1167-1179.

Ter-Braak CJF. 1994. Canonical community ordination. Part I: Basic theory and linear methods. Ecoscience 1, 127-140.

Tichý L, Chytrý M. 2006. Statistical determination of diagnostic species for site groups of unequal size. J. Veg. Sci 17, 809-818.

Vujnovic K, Wein RW, Dale MRT. 2012. Predicting plant species diversity in response to disturbance magnitude in grassland remnants of central Alberta. Can. J. Bot 80(5), 504-511.

Webster J, Weber RWS. 2007. Introduction to fungi. Cambridge University Press pp.487-657.