Ecology and distribution of carabid beetles in selected forests of Eastern Visayas, Philippines

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/03/2022
Views (386) Download (51)

Ecology and distribution of carabid beetles in selected forests of Eastern Visayas, Philippines


The study has been carried out to provide basic data for analyzing the ecology and distribution of carabid beetles in six forests of Eastern Visayas namely: Lake Danao, Mt. Nacolod, Kuapnit Balinsasayao, Asug Forest, City Forest, and Closed Canopy on January to June of 2019. Collected carabid beetles was comprised of 7844 individuals belonging to 41 species under 25 genera, 13 tribes, and two (2) subfamilies. Carabid species diversity, as estimated by diversity indices, was significantly different among the six forests. Of the six forests, Mt. Nacolod had comparatively high diversity (4.00). equitability (0.78), dominance (2.709), and species richness (32). In terms of habitat types, there were 41 species belonging to 25 genera identified among 3,771 carabids collected from natural forests of Eastern Visayas. In agricultural habitat type, 28 species were identified from 4, 073 carabid beetles. Natural forest had comparatively high diversity (5.95), high equitability (0.80), dominance (3.1), and species richness (41) over agricultural land. Along with other factors, these habitat parameters are influenced by the nature of the vegetation. Conservation should be conducted to the carabid beetles especially the rare and endemic ones in some forests. Strengthened implementation of protection in both protected landscapes against mining, illegal logging, slash and burn farming and human settlements should also be done.


Adams J. 2010. Species Richness-Patterns in the Diversity of Life. Praxis Publishing Ltd, Chichester, UK.

Antvogel H, Bonn A. 2001. Environmental Parameters and Microspatial Distribution of Insects: A Case Study of Carabids in an Alluvial Forest. Ecography 24, 470-482.

Atlegrim O, Sjoberg K, Ball JP. 1997. Forestry effects on a boreal ground beetle community in spring: Selective logging and clear-cutting compared. Biodiversity and Conservation 12, 487-506.

Baltazar CR. 2001. Directions of Systematic Entomology in the Philippines. Tra11s. Nall. Acad. Sci. & Tech., Philippines (2001) 23, 95-104

Baranová B, Fazekašová D, Jászay T, Manko P. 2013. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) community of arable land with different crops. – Folis faunistica Slovaca 18(1), 21-29.

Bond W, Slingsby P. 1984. Collapse of an ant-plant mutualism: the argentine ant (Iridomyrmex humilis) and myrmecochorous proteaceae. Ecology 65, 1031-1037

Bonham KJ, Mesibov R, Bashford R. 2002. Diversity and abundance of some ground-dwelling invertabrates in plantation vs. native forest in Tasmania. Aust. For. Ecol. Manage 158, 237-247.

Brooks TM, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca GAB, Rylands AB, Konstant WR, Flick P, Pilgrim J, Oldfield S, Magin G, Hilton-Taylor C. 2002. Habitat loss and extinction in the hotspots of biodiversity. Conservation Biology 16, 909-923.

Burghardt KT, Tallamy DW, Shriver WG. 2008. Impact of native plants on bird and butterfly biodiversity in suburban landscapes. Conservation Biology 23, 219-224.

Chen J, Franklin JF, Spies TA. 1995. Growing-season microclimatic gradients from clearcut edges into old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Ecol. Appl. 5, 74-86

de Souza ALT, de Souza Modena E. 2004. Distribution of spiders on different types of inflorescences in the Brazilian pantanal. The Journal of Arachnology 32, 345-348.

Detwiler RP, Hall AS. 1988. Tropical Forest and the Global Carbon Cycle. Science 329, 42-47.

Erwin TL. 1982. Tropical forests: their richness in coleoptera and other arthropod species. The Coleopterist Bulletin 36, 74-75.

Esseen PA, Ehnstro¨ m B, Ericson L, Sjo¨ berg K. 1997. Boreal forests. Ecol. Bull. 46, 16-47

Fahy O, Gormally M. 1998. A comparison of plant and carabid beetle communities in an Irish oak woodland with a nearby conifer plantation and clearfelled site. Forest. Ecol. Manag 110, 263-273.

Finch OD. 2005. Evaluation of mature conifer plantations as secondary habitat for epigeic forest arthropods (Coleoptera: Carabidae; Araneae). Forest. Ecol. Manag 204, 23-36.

Gillison AN. 1981. Towards a functional vegetation classification. In: A.N. Gillison and D.J. Anderson (eds.) Vegetation Classification in Australia, pp.30-41. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization & Australian National University Press, Canberra.

Gillison AN. 1988. A Plant Functional Proforma for Dynamic Vegetation Studies and Natural Resource Surveys. Tech. Mem. 88/3, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization Div. Water Resources, Canberra.

Gillison AN. 2000. Rapid vegetation survey. In: A.N. Gillison (Coord.) Above-ground Biodiversity assessment Working Group Summary Report 1996-99 Impact of different land uses on biodiversity. pp. 25-38. Alternatives to Slash and Burn project. ICRAF, Nairobi.

Gillison AN. 2001a. Vegetation Survey and Habitat Assessment of the Tesso Nilo Forest Complex; Pekanbaru, Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. Report prepared for WWF-US. (October-November, 2001).

Gillison AN. 2001b. Promoting biodiversity conservation and sustainable use in the frontier forests of Northwestern Mato Grosso: Bioregional assessment, land use and zoning for biodiversity conservation. Report prepared for UNDP/GEF and PróNatura (August, 2001).

Groombridge B. 1992. Global biodiversity: status of the earth’s living resources Chapman & Hall, London.

Hammer O, Harper DA, Ryan PD. 2001. PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol. Electron 4, 1-9

Hansson L. 1992. Landscape ecology of boreal forests. Trends Ecol. Evol 7, 299-302

Helio¨ la¨ J, Koivula M, Niemela¨ J. 2001. Distribution of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) across boreal forestclearcut ecotone. Conserv. Biol 15, 370-377.

Hoekman D, LeVan KE, Ball GE, Browne RA, Davidson RL, Erwin TL, Knisley CB, LaBonte JR, Lundgren J, Maddison DR, Moore W, Niemel€a J, Ober KA, Pearson DL, Spence JR, Will K, Work T. 2017. Design for ground beetle abundance and diversity sampling within the National Ecological Observatory Network. Ecosphere 8(4), e01744.10.1002/ecs2.1744

Huston MA. 1993. Biological Diversity: The Coexisence of Species on Changing Landscapes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK

Isaacs R, Tuell J, Fiedler A, Gardiner M, Landis D. 2009. Maximizing arthropod mediated ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes: the role of native plants. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7, 196-203.

Isaia MM, Paschetta Gobbi M, Zapparoli M, Chiarle A, Vigna Taglianti A. 2015. “Stand maturity affects positively ground-dwelling arthropods in a protected beech forest,” Annals of Forest Science72(4), pp. 415-424.

Jukes MR, Peace AJ, Ferris R. 2001. Carabid beetle communities associated with coniferous plantations in Britain: The influence of site, ground vegetation and stand structure. Forest Ecology and Management 148, 271-286

Kirschenhofer E. 2008. Neue und wenig bekannte Arten sowie drei neue Synonyme (Tribus Chlaeniini) der palaarktischen, orientalischen und himalayanischen Region. (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Acta Coleopterologica 24(3), 3-34.

Kotze DJ, Samways MJ. 1999. Invertebrate conservation at the interface between the grassland matrix and natural Afromontane forest fragments. Biodivers. Conserv 8, 1339-1363.

Kotze DJ, O’Hara RB. 2003. Species decline—but why? Explanation of carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) declines in Europe. Oecologia 135, 138-148

Kremen C, Colwell RK, Erwin TL, Murphy DD, Noss RF, Sanjayan MA. 1993. Terrestrial arthropod assemblages: their use in conservation planning. Conservation Biology 7, 796-808.

Lassau SA, Hochuli DF, Cassis G, Reid CAM. 2005. Effects of habitat complexity on forest beetle diversity: do functional groups respond consistently? Diversity and Distributions 11, 73-82.

Laurance WF. 1999. Reflections on the tropical deforestation crisis. Biological Conservation 91, 109-117.

Leech NL, Barrett KC, Morgan GA. 2005. SPSS for Intermediate Statistics, Use and Interpretation. 2nd Edition, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc., Mahwah.

Lindroth CH. 1949. Die Fennoskandischen Carabiden, Part 3, Algemeiner Teil. Stockholm; Bröderna Lagerström Boktrychare.

Liu YH, Axmacher JC, Wang CL, Li LT, Yu ZR. 2010. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in the intensively cultivated agricultural landscape of Northern China a implications for biodiversity conservation. Insect. Conserv. Diver 3, 34-43.

Lövei GL, Sunderland KD. 1996. Ecology and behavior of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Annual Review of Entomology 41(1), 231-256.

Luff ML. 1987. Biology of polyphagous ground beetles in agriculture. Agric Zool Rev 2, 237-278.

Magagula CN. 2003. Changes in carabid beetle diversity within a fragmented agricultural landscape. African Journal of Ecology 41, 23-30

Magura T, Tóthmérész B, Ele Z. 2003. Diversity and composition of carabids during a forestry cycle. Biol. Conserv 12, 73-85.

Magura T, To´ thme´ re´ sz B, Molna´ r T. 2001. Forest edge and diversity: carabids along forest-grassland transects. Biodivers. Conserv 10, 287-300.

Matlack GR. 1993. Microenvironment variation within and among forest edge sites in the eastern United States. Biol. Conserv 66, 185-194.

Murcia C. 1995. Edge effects in fragmented forests: implications for conservation. Trends Ecol. Evol 10, 58-62.

Myers N, Knoll AH. 2001. The biotic crisis and the future of evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98, 5389-5392.

NiemeIa J, Halroe E. 1992. Habitat associations of carabid beetles in fields and forests on the Aland Islands, SW Finland. Ecography, 15, 3-11. ZooKeys 147, 497-526.

Niemela JP, Mattson WJ. 1996. Invasion of North American forests by European phytophagous insects. BioScience 46, 741-753.

Niemela J, Spence R, Langor D, Haila Y, Tukia H. 2002. Logging and boreal ground-beetle assemblages on two continents: implications for conservation. pp.29-50. In K. J. Gaston, T. R. New, and M. J. Samways (eds). Perspectives on Insect Conservation. Intercept Ltd, Andover.

Niemela J. 1993. Mystery of the missing species: species-abundance distribution of boreal ground-beetles. Ann Zool Fenn 30, 169-172

Padayachi Y, Proches S, Ramsay LF. 2014. Beetle assemblages of indigenous and Alien decomposing fruit in subtropical Durban, South Africa. Arthropod-Plant Interactions 8, 21-28

Pakeman RJ, Stockan JA. 2014. Drivers of carabid functional diversity: abiotic environment, plant functional traits, or plant functional diversity? Ecology 95(5), 1213-1224.

Raven PH. 1980. Research Priorities in Tropical Biology. National Academy of Science Press, Washington DC.

Rusch A, Bommarco R, Chiverton P, Öberg S, Wallin H, Wiktelius S, Ekbom B. 2013. Response of ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) communities to changes in agricultural policies in Sweden over two decades. Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 176, 63-69.

Scholtz CH, Grebennikov VV. 2005. Scarabaeiformia Crowson, 1960. Pp. 345-366. In R. G. Beutel and R. A. B. Leschen (eds). Coleoptera, Beetles, Volume1. Morphology and Systematics (Archostemata, Adephaga, Myxophaga, Polyphagapartim). Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.

Schröter L, Irmler U. 2013. Organic cultivation reduces barrier effect of arable fields on species diversity. Agr. Ecosyst. Environ 164, 176-180.

Schulze CH. 2004. Auswirkungen anthropogener Störungen auf die Diversität von Herbivoren – Analyse von Nachtfalterzönosen entlang von Habitatgradienten in Ost-Malaysia. Ph.D., University of Bayreuth

Seastedt TR, Crossley DA, Jr. 1984. The influence of arthropods on ecosystems. BioScience 34, 157-161.

Simpson EH. 1949. Measurement of diversity. Nature 163, 688-688. doi:10.1038/163688a0.

Tallamy DW. 2004. Do alien plants reduce insect biomass? Conservation Biology 18, 1689-1692

Thiele HU. 1977. Carabid beetles in their environments. Berlin, Heidelbelg, New York: Springer-Verlag p. 369

Townsend CR, Begon M, Harper JL. 2008. Essentials of Ecology 3rd ed. Blackwell Publishing. Malden, USA.

Trautner J, Geigenmüller K. 1987. Sandlaufkäfer Laufkäfer. J. Margraf Publisher, Aichtal 488.

Vanbergen AJ, Woodcook BA, Watt AD, Niemel€a J. 2005. Effect of land-use heterogeneity on carabid communities at the landscape scale. Ecography 28, 3-16.

Warren-Thomas E, Zou Y, Dong LJ, Yao XN, Yang MJ, Zhang XL, Qin Y, Liu YH, Sang WG, Axmacher JC. 2014. Ground beetle assemblages in Beijing’s new mountain forests. Forest. Ecol. Manag 334, 369-376.

Wilson JS. 1992. The diversity of life. W.W. Norton & Company, New York.

Wilson EO. 1987. The little things that run the world (the importance and conservation of invertebrates). Conservation Biology 1, 344-346.

Woodcock BA, Leather SR, Watt AD. 2003. Changing management in Scottish birch woodlands: a potential threat to local invertebrate biodiversity. Bull Entomol Res. 2, 159-67