Effect of bacterial blight disease on ionic contents of cotton and its management

Paper Details

Review Paper 01/04/2020
Views (484) Download (59)

Effect of bacterial blight disease on ionic contents of cotton and its management

Muhammad Zeeshan Talib, Muhammad Junaid Iqbal, Abdul Rehman, Rabia Fatima, Saima Amin, Muhammad Nadeem Akram, Tayyab Shafiq, Zahra Khan, Shakar Hussain, Muddassir Abbas
J. Bio. Env. Sci.16( 4), 61-70, April 2020.
Certificate: JBES 2020 [Generate Certificate]


The bacterial blight disease caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. malvacearum (Xcm) has been reported across the globe. Disease prevalence under warm weather causing upto 26-30% yield loss. Xcm infected plant show symptoms on seeds, stems, bolls and leaves at any stage of the growth by invading through wounds or stomata. The survival time of pathogen is about 22 months in seeds and can also live in crop debris throughout winter. Nutrients uptake from soil greatly affected by this disease and also impair water translocation. Therefore, use of resistant varieties is a control measure. Besides, there are chemical and plant extract options present in the management of bacterial blight disease in cotton.


Ahn IP, Kim S, Lee YH. 2005. Vitamin B1 functions as an activator of plant disease resistance. Plant Physiology 138, 1505-1515.

Akello B, Hillocks RJ. 2002. Distribution and races of Xanthomonas citri pv. malvacearum on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) in Uganda. Journal of Phytopathology 150, 65-69.

Ali MA, Khan IA. 2007. Why cotton is a problematic crop? The DAWN, Economic and Business Review. September 17, 2007. http://www. dawn.com /news/266486.

Anwar F, Ashraf M, Bhanger MI. 2005. Inter provenance variation in the composition of Moringa oleifera oilseeds from Pakistan. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 82(1), 45-51.

Athar HR, Bhatti AR, Bashir N, Zafar ZU, Abida A, Farooq A. 2011. Modulating infestation rate of white fly (Bemicia tabaci) on okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) by nitrogen application. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 33, 843-850.

Atkinson GF. 1892. Some diseases of cotton. Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station 41, 54-55.

Bakhsh A, Anayol E, Ozcan SF, Hussain T, Aasim M, Khawar KM, Ozcan S. 2015. An insight into cotton genetic engineering (Gossypium hirsutum L.): Current endeavors and prospects. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 37(8), 171.

Bayles M, Verhalen LM. 2007. Bacterial blight reactions of sixty one upland cotton cultivars. Journal of Cotton Science 11, 40-51.

Cakmak IM. 2000. Possible roles of zinc in protecting plant cells from damage by reactive oxygen species. New Phytologist 146, 185-205.

Campos A, Lino CM, Cardoso SM, Silveira MIN. 2005. Organochlorine pesticide residues in European sardine, horse mackerel and Atlantic mackerel from Portugal. Food Additives and Contaminants 22(7), 642-646.

Chakrabarthy PK, Mukewar PM, Sheo R, Sravankumar V. 2002. Biochemical factors governing resistance in diploid cotton against grey mildew. Indian Phytopathology 55, 140-146.

Chattannvar SN, Sharmila AS, Khadi BM. 2006. Field evaluation of fungicides against angular leaf spot of cotton. Journal of Cotton Research 20, 145-146.

Cristos D. 2008. Role of nutrients in controlling plant diseases. Annual Review of Phytopathology 43, 66-84.

Delannoy E, Lyon BR, Marmey P, Jalloul A, Daniel JF, Montillet JL, Essenberg M, Nicole M. 2005. Resistance of cotton towards Xanthomonas citri pv. malvacearum. Annual Review of Phytopathology 43, 63-82.

Dordas C. 2008. Role of nutrients in controlling plant diseases in sustainable agriculture: Agronomy for sustainable agriculture 28, 33-46.

Evans G. 1965. Cotton disease research in pakistan. A consultant report of FAO, Rome pp. 44.

Freeman BC, Beattie GA. 2008. Lowa State University. An overview of plant defenses against pathogens and herbivores. The Plant Health Instructor DOI: 10.1094/PHI-I-0226-0

Gaffney T, Friedrich L, Vernooj B, Negrotto D, Nye G, Uknes S, Ward E, Kessmann H, Ryals J. 1993. Requirement of salicylic acid for the induction of systemic acquired resistance. Science Journal 261, 754-756.

Gallet CL, Despre S, Tollenaere C. 2004. Phenolic response of Trollius europaeus to Chiastocheta invasion. Polyph Communication 759-760.

Gibbons S. 2005. Plants as a source of bacterial resistance modulators and anti-infective agents. Phytochemistry Reviews 4, 63-78.

GOP. 2018. http://www.finance.gov.pk/survey_ 1819. html

Gottlieb OR, Borin MR, Brito NR. 2002. Integration of ethnobotany and phytochemistry dream or reality. Phytochemistry 60, 145-152.

Govindappa NH. 2007. Studies on foliar diseases of cotton with special reference to Bt cotton. Thesis department of plant Pathology College of agriculture, Dharwad University of agricultural sciences Dharwad.

Gul S, Khan N, Batool S, Baloch M, Munir M, Sajid M, Khakwani A, Ghaloo S, Soomro Z, Kazmi S. 2014. Genotype by environment interaction and association of morpho-yield variables in upland cotton. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 24(1), 262-271.

Harlapur SI, Chattannavar SN, Wali MC, Kulkarni MS. 2004. Cotton disease problems in Ghataprabha left bank canal command region of Karnataka. Crop production 362-363.

Hasan SAN, Perveen R, Drishak KU, Atif U, Shabbir SG. 2014. In-vitro evaluation of various medicinal plant extracts against Xanthomonas citri pv. malvacearum. International Journal of Biological Sciences 1, 46-55.

Huber DM, Jones JB. 2012. The role of magnesium in plant disease. Plant soil springer Science and Business Media Dordrecht.

Iglesias I, Escuredo O, Seijo C, Mendez J. 2010. Phytophthora infestans prediction for a potato crop. American Journal of Potato Research 87, 32-40.

Imran M, Gurmani ZA. 2011. Role of macro and micro nutrients in the plant growth and development. Science and Technology Development 30(3), 36-40.

Innes NL. 1983. Bacterial blight of cotton. Biological Review 58, 157-176

JacobsmmJ, Vosman B, Vleeshouwers VGAA, Visser RGF, Henken B, Berg RGV. 2010. A novel approach to locate Phytophthora infestans resistance genes on the potato genetic map. Theoretical Applications of Genetics 120, 785-796.

Jagtap GP, Jangam AM, Deya U. 2012. Management of bacterial blight of cotton caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. malvacearum. Scientific Journal of Microbiology 1(1), 10-18.

Kamal M, Naim QM. 1983. Final report of the scheme on investigation of boll rot of cotton. Agriculture research institute tandojam pp. 20.

Khan J, Bashir Z, Ahmad A, Tariq W, Yousaf A, Gohar M. 2015. Mathematical modeling of cotton leaf curl virus with respect to environmental factors. European Journal of Microbiology Immunology 5(2), 172-176

Khan MA, Ilyas MB, Rashid A. 1999. Correlation of environmental conditions with bacterial blight disease on six commercially grown cotton cultivars in five districts of the Punjab. Pakistan Journal of Agriculture Science 36, 1-2.

Khan MA, Rashid A, Chohan RA. 2000. Biological control of bacterial blight of cotton using some plant extracts. Pakistan Journal of Agriculture Science 37, 175-177.

Kiran B, Raveesha KA. 2006. Antifungal activity of seed extract of Psoralea corylifolia L. Research in Plant Disease 20(2), 213-215.

Kirkpatrick TL, Rothrock CS. 2001. Compendium of cotton diseases second ed. APS Press. St. Paul. MN 77.

Kumar A, Gul MZ, Zeeshan A, Bimolata W, Qureshi IA, Ghazi IA. 2013. Differential antioxidative responses of three different rice genotypes during bacterial blight infection. Australian Journal of Crop Science 7(12), 1893-1900.

Liberato JR, Allen SJ, Suassuna ND, Mehta YR, Koenning SR, Shivas RG. 2007. Bacterial blight of cotton Xanthomonas citri pv. malvacearum. Pest and diseases image library Victoria 18.

Lokanadhan S, Muthukrishnan P, Jeyaraman S. 2012. Neem products and their agricultural applications. Journal of Biopesticide 5, 72-76.

Mahajan A, Das S. 2003. Plants and microbes-Potential source of pesticide for future use. Pesticides information 28(4), 33-38.

Marschner H. 1995. Mineral nutrition of higher plants, 2nd Edn. Academic Press London 889.

Marschner, H. 2011. Marschner’s mineral nutrition of higher plants, 3rd ed. Academic London.

Pathak AK, Shailesh G. 2006. Management of bacterial blight of cotton Xanthomonas citri pv. malvacearum through chemicals. Journal of Mycology. and Plant Pathology 1, 36-35.

Proto M, Supino S, Malandrino O. 2000. Cotton: a flow cycle to exploit. Industrial Crops and Products 11, 173-178.

Rungis D, Llewellyn D, Dennis ES, Lyon BR. 2002. Investigation of the chromosomal location of the bacterial blight resistance gene present in an Australian cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar. Australian Journal of Agriculture Research 53, 551-560.

Saadabi AMA, Sehemi AGL, Zailia KAA. 2006. In-vitro antimicrobial activity of some saudia arabian plants used in folkloric medicine .International Journal Botany 2(2), 201-204.

Sahi ST, Ghazanfar MU, Afzal M, Habib A, Ilyas MB. 2007. Role of N, P & K contents in resistance against ascochyta blight of lentil (lens culinaris medik). Pakistan Journal of Botany 39(6), 2175-2181

Sain SK, Gour HN. 2008. Pathological, physiological and biochemical characterization of Xanthomonas citri pv. parthenii incitent of leaf blight in Parthenium hysterophorus. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology 38(3), 466-477.

Sajid M, Rashid A, Ehetisham-ul-haq M, Javed MT, Jamil H, Mudassir M, Farooq M, Ahmad F, Latif M, Chohan MA, Ahmad M, Kamran A. 2013. In vitro evaluation of chemicals and plant extracts against colony growth of Xanthomonas citri pv. malvacearum causing bacterial blight of cotton. Europian Journal of Experimental Biology 3(1), 617-621.

Sana U, Iqbal CJ, Hussain M. 2012. Effectiveness of fungicides and antibiotics against BLB in Rice. Journal of Agriculture Research 50, 261-265.

Shah MKN, Malik SA, Murtaza N, Ullah I, Rahman H, Younis U. 2010. Early and rapid flowering coupled with shorter boll maturation period offers selection criteria for early crop maturity in upland cotton. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42, 3569-3576.

Shakeel A, Farooq J, Ali MA, Riaz M, Farooq A, Saeed A, Saleem MF. 2011. Inheritance pattern of earliness in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Australian Journal of Crop Science 5(10), 12-24.

Sharma RC, Duveiller E. 2004. Effect of helminthosporium leaf blight on performance of timely and late seeded wheat under optimal and stressed levels of soil fertility and moisture. Field Crop Research 89, 205-218.

Singh A, Srivatava SSL, Akram M. 2007. Studies on bacterial leaf blight of cotton (Gossypium spp.). International Journal of Sustainable Crop Production 2, 25-29.

Soylu S, Baysal O, Soylu EM. 2003. Induction of disease resistance by the plant activator acibenzosolar-S methyl (ASM) against bacterial canker (Clavibactor michiganensis subsp. michiganensis) in tomato seedling. Plant Science 165, 1069-1076.

Spann TM, Schumann AW. 2010. Mineral nutrition contributes to plant disease and pest resistance. Horticultural sciences department UF/IFAS Extension, University of Florida, Gainesville FL 121-129.

Sunilkumar G, Campbell LM, Puckhaber L, Stipanovic RD, Rathore KS. 2006. Engineering cottonseed for use in human nutrition by tissue-specific reduction of toxic gossypol. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103(48), 18054-18059.

Thaxton PM, Brooks TD, Zik KME. 2001. Race identification and severity of bacterial blight from natural infestations across the cotton belt. In: Proceeding Beltwide cotton conference. Memphis. TN 137-138.

Thaxton PM, Zik KME. 2001. Bacterial blight and Compendium of cotton diseases. 2nd ed. American Phytopathological Society Station Paul, MN.

Verma JP. 1986. Bacterial blight of cotton. CRC Press, Florida. USA 278-279.

Vinay B, Raghavendra S, Lokesh S, Prakash HS. 2007. Dravya, a product of seaweed extract (Sargassum wightii), induces resistance in cotton against Xanthomonas campestris pv. malsvacearum. Phytoparasitica 35(5), 442-449.

Voloudakis AE, Marmey P, Delannoy E, Jalloul A, Martinez C, Nicole M. 2006. Molecular cloning and characterization of (Gossypium hirsutum) superoxide dismutase genes during cotton Xanthomonas citri pv. malvacearum interaction. Physiology and Molecular Plant Pathology 68, 119-127.

Walters DR, Bingham IJ. 2007. Influence of nutrition on disease development caused by fungal pathogens, implications for plant disease control. Annals of Applied Biology 151, 307-324.