Effect of bacterial endophytes isolated from citrus on the physiology of Brassica Oleracea

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/06/2018
Views (214) Download (4)

Effect of bacterial endophytes isolated from citrus on the physiology of Brassica Oleracea

Sehrish Mushtaq, Muhammad Shafiq, Muhammad Asim, Muhammad Saleem Haider
Int. J. Biosci.12( 6), 225-234, June 2018.
Certificate: IJB 2018 [Generate Certificate]


Endophytes have a symbiotic relationship with the different parts of plants and could play a very important role in supporting the plant growth. The effects of endophytic bacterial communities in cabbage have not been studied yet in Pakistan. In present study, ten different genera of bacterial endophytes isolated from citrus leaves were selected to estimate their effects on cabbage physiology at seedlings stage in glass house. To know the extent of colonization of these bacterial endophytes on cabbage as a host or non-host tissues bacterial suspension (108 CFU mL-1) were inoculated on the backside of the cabbage seedlings leave by injection syringe in green house. Five weeks after inoculation the plants were analyzed for the physical (SL, RL, SFW, RFW, SDW, RDW), bio-physical (Relative leaf water contents) & physiological (Phenolic, Flavonoids, Total soluble sugars, chlorophyll a, b& carotenoid contents) by using standard methods describe in text. According to results Bacillus safensis (shoot length, chlorophyll b contents), Bacillus megaterium (root length, phenolic compound), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (root fresh weight, total soluble sugars, flavonoids and carotenoids contents), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (shoot fresh/dry weight and relative leaf water contents)imparts beneficial effects on physiological functioning of cabbage in comparison to non-inoculated plants. Results indicated that test microbial endophytes possessing a dynamic role to improve plant growth and could be used as inoculants to establish a sustainable crop production system. However, a comprehensive approach is needed to evaluate the potential of these bacterial endophytes to improve the quality and yield in cabbage under field conditions.


Achatz B, Von Ruden S, Andrade D, Neumann E, Pons-Kühnemann J, Kogel KH, Waller F. 2010. Root colonization by Piriformospora indica enhances grain yield in barley under diverse nutrient regimes by accelerating plant development. Plant and soil 333(1-2), 59-70.

Ardebili ZO, Ardebili NO, Mahdi Hamdi SM. 2011.Physiological effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants and its possible impact on Fusariumoxysporum f. sp.’Lycopersici’. Australian Journal of Crop Science5(12), 1631.

Asaf S, Khan MA, Khan AL, Waqas M, Shahzad R, Kim AY, Lee IJ. 2017. Bacterial endophytes from arid land plants regulate endogenous hormone content and promote growth in crop plants: an example of Sphingomonas sp. and Serratia marcescens. Journal of Plant Interactions 12(1), 31-38.

Berg G, Eberl L, Hartmann A. 2005. The rhizosphere as a reservoir for opportunistic human pathogenic bacteria. Environmental Microbiology  7 (11), 1673-1685.

Biale JB. 1964. Growth, maturation, and senescence in fruits. Science 146 (3646), 880-888.

Bilgin DD, Zavala JA, Zhu JIN, Clough SJ, Ort DR, DeLucia EVAN. 2010. Biotic stress globally downregulates photosynthesis genes. Plant cell and environment33(10), 1597-1613.

Campbell B, Han DY, Triggs CM, Fraser AG, Ferguson LR. 2012. Brassicaceae: Nutrient analysis and investigation of tolerability in people with Crohn’s disease in a New Zealand study. Functional Foods in Health and Disease, 2460-486.

Chaturvedi H, Singh V, Gupta G. 2016. Potential of bacterial endophytes as plant growth promoting factors. Journal of Plant Pathology and Microbiology 7(376), 2.

Chauhan H, Bagyaraj DJ, Sharma A. 2013. Plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes from sugarcane and their potential in promoting growth of the host under field conditions. Experimental Agriculture 49(1), 43-52.

Glick BR, Cheng Z, Czarny J, Duan J. 2007. Promotion of plant growth by ACC deaminase-producing soil bacteria. European Journal of Plant Pathology 119(3), 329-339.

Gray EJ, Smith DL. 2005. Intracellular and extracellular PGPR: commonalities and distinctions in the plant–bacterium signaling processes. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37(3), 395-412.

Jalgaonwala RE, Mahajan RT. 2011. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacterial flora from some Indian medicinal plants. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry4(2), 56.

Kadioglu A, Yavru I. 1998.Changes in the chemical content and polyphenol oxidase activity during development and ripening of cherry laurel fruits. PHYTON-HORN 37, 241-252.

Kang SH, Cho H, Cheong H, Ryu CM, Kim JF, Park SH. 2007. Two bacterial entophytes eliciting both plant growth promotion and plant defense on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Journal of microbiology and biotechnology 17(1), 96.

Khan AL, Hussain J, Al-Harrasi A, Al-Rawahi A, Lee IJ. 2015. Endophytic fungi: resource for gibberellins and crop abiotic stress resistance. Critical reviews in biotechnology35(1), 62-74.

Khan AR, Ullah I, Khan AL, Park GS, Waqas M, Hong SJ, Shin JH. 2015. Improvement in phytoremediation potential of Solanum nigrum under cadmium contamination through endophytic-assisted Serratia sp. RSC-14 inoculation. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22(18), 14032-14042.

Kostova I, Bhatia S, Grigorov P, Balkansky S, S Parmar V, K Prasad A, Saso L. 2011. Coumarins as antioxidants. Current medicinal chemistry 18(25), 3929-3951.

Lins MDCR, Fontes JEM, de Vasconcelos NM, da Silva Santos DM, Ferreira OE, de Azevedo JLU, de Souza Lima GAM. 2014. Plant growth promoting potential of endophytic bacteria isolated from cashew leaves. African journal of biotechnology 13(33).

Mehnaz S. 2011. Plant growth-promoting bacteria associated with sugarcane. In Bacteria in Agrobiology: Crop Ecosystems (165-187). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Mirza MS, Mehnaz S, Normand P, Prigent-Combaret C, Moënne-Loccoz Y, Bally R, Malik KA. 2006. Molecular characterization and PCR detection of a nitrogen-fixing Pseudomonas strain promoting rice growth. Biology and Fertility of Soils 43(2), 163-170.

Nath K, Solanky KU, Mahatma MK, Madhubala SR. 2015. Role of total soluble sugar, phenols and defense related enzymes in relation to banana fruit rot by Lasiodiplodia theobromae [(Path.) Griff. And Maubl.] during ripening. Journal of Plant Pathology and Microbiology6(2).

Padder SA, Bhat ZA, Sofi S, Mukhtar M. 2015. Biochemical attributes of efficient PGPR bioinoculants and their effect on growth of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.). Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology 9(4), 3193-3203.

Pillay VK, Nowak J. 1997.  Inoculum density, temperature, and genotype effects on in vitro growth promotion and epiphytic and endophytic colonization of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) seedlings inoculated with a pseudomonad bacterium. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 43,354-361.

Ponka A, Andersson Y, Siitonen A, de Jong B, Jahkola M, Haikala O, Pakkala P. 1995. Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts. The Lancet 345(8947), 462-463.

Schroth MN, Hancock JG. 1982. Disease-suppressive soil and root-colonizing bacteria. Science 216(4553), 1376-1381.

Schulz B, Boyle C, Draeger S, Rommert AK, Krohn K. 2002. Endophytic fungi: a source of novel biologically active secondary metabolites. Mycological Research 106(9), 996-1004.

Sessitsch A, Hardoim P, Döring J, Weilharter A, Krause A, Woyke T, Hurek T. 2012. Functional characteristics of an endophyte community colonizing rice roots as revealed by metagenomic analysis. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 25(1), 28-36.

Sexanan AK, Tilak KVBR. 1998. Free living nitrogen fixers: their role in crop productivity. Microbes for health wealth and sustainable environment Malhotra. Publishing house, New Delhi, India, 25-46.

Shah R, Ahmed S, Poswal A. 2013.Population dynamics of insect pests, parasitoids and predators in cabbage and cauliflower agro-ecosystems. Journal of Entomological Research 37(2), 129-137.

Shi Y, Lou K, Li C. 2010. Growth and photosynthetic efficiency promotion of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) by endophytic bacteria. Photosynthesis research 105(1), 5-13.

Strobel G, Daisy B, Castillo U, Harper J. 2004. Natural products from endophytic microorganisms. Journal of Natural products 67(2), 257-268.

Swarnalatha Y, Saha B, Choudary L. 2015. Bioactive compound analysis and antioxidant activity of endophytic bacterial extract from Adhathoda beddomei. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 8(1), 70-72.

Tan Z, Hurek T, Reinhold-Hurek B. 2003. Effect of N-fertilization, plant genotype and environmental conditions on nifH gene pools in roots of rice. Environmental Microbiology 5, 1009-1015.

Ul Hassan T, Bano A. 2015. The stimulatory effects of L-tryptophan and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on soil health and physiology of wheat. Journal of soil science and plant nutrition15(1), 190-201.

Van Overbeek L, Van Elsas JD. 2008. Effects of plant genotype and growth stage on the structure of bacterial communities associated with potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). FEMS Microbiology Ecology 64(2), 283-296.

Wang H, Wen K, Zhao X, Wang X, Li A, Hong H. 2009. The inhibitory activity of endophytic Bacillus sp. strain CHM1 against plant pathogenic fungi and its plant growth-promoting effect. Crop Protection 28(8), 634-639.