Effect of feeding mulberry multinutrient blocks on feed intake of maize stover in calves
Alvi AS, Sharif M. 1995. Arid zone agriculture and research in Pakistan. Progressive farming 15, 5-12.
AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis. Association of analytical chemists. Hoerwitz, W. (ed). Washington D.C., U.S.A.
Badurdeen AL, Ibrahim MNM, Ranwana SSE. 1994. Methods to improve utilization of rice straw. III. Effects of urea ammonia treatment and molasses urea blocks supplementation on intake, digestibility, rumen and blood parameters. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 7(3), 363-372.
Beg GA. 2010. ‘Current status of pastoral systems in Gilgit-Baltistan and Chitral, Pakistan’. In Kretzmann H, Abdulalishoev K, Lu Zhaohui, Richter J (eds) Pastoralism and rangeland management in mountain areas in the context of climate and global change; Regional workshop in Khorog and Kashgar 14-21 July 2010. pp214. Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Feldafing (Germany) Bittner C, Paul D, Methke D, Wachter T. 2008 Land use in Shigar Valley. Freie University Berlin.
Ben Salem H, Nefzaoui A, Makkar HPS. 2007. Feed supplementation blocks for increased utilization of tanniniferous forages by ruminants. In (Editors: Makkar, H. P. S., Sanchez, M. and Speedy, A. W.) Feed Supplementation blocks. Urea-molasses multinutrient blocks: simple and effective feed supplement technology for ruminant agriculture. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper 164, 1-12.
Faiza MU. 2000. Effect of feeding untreated or ammoniated maize stover with or without urea molasses block supplementation on nutrients digestibility and feed intake in cow calves. M.Sc. (Hons), Thesis, Faculty of Animal husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, KPK. Agricultural University Peshawar.
FAO. 1987 Pakistan’s experience in rangeland rehabilitation and improvement. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome pp70.
Jalal-ud-Din. 1991. Effect of supplementing a basal diet of wheat straw and minerals with urea or urea-molasses block on feed intake and digestion Kinetics. M.Sc (Hons) Thesis, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences. KPK. Agricultural University Peshawar.
Leng RA. 1990. Factors affecting the utilization of poor quality forage by ruminants particularly under tropical conditions. Nutritional research reviews 3, 277-303.
Makkar HPS. 2007. Feed supplementation block technology – past, present and future. In (Editors: Makkar H P S, Sanchez M and Speedy A W.) Feed Supplementation Blocks. Urea-molasses multinutrient blocks: simple and effective feed supplement technology for ruminant agriculture. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper 164, 1-12.
Mehra UR, Challa J, Singh UB. 1991. Effect of supplementation of urea-molasses mineral block and wheat bran in a wheat bhoosa based diet on growth performance and nutrient utilization in buffalo calves. Indian Journal of Dairy Science 44, 522-525.
Preston TR, Leng RA. 1984. Supplementation of diets based on fibrous residues and by products. In Sundstrol, F. and E. Owens. (eds.). Straw and other fibrous by-products as feed. Elsevier, Amsterdam pp 373-413.
Saeed I. 2000. Associative effect of molasses urea block supplement and forage quality on nutrient digestion and nitrogen retention in sheep. M.Sc. Thesis. KPK. Agricultural University Peshawar.
Sarwar M, Khan MA, Iqbal Z. 2002. Feed Resources for Livestock in Pakistan. Status Paper. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 4, 186-192.
Satler LD, Slyter LL. 1974. Effect of ammonia concentration on rumen microbial protein production in vitro. British Journal of Nutrition 32, 199-210.
Shahab-ud-Din. 1992. Comparative effect of urea molasses block lick on feed intake and body weight gain in buffalo calves and cow calves fed a basal diet of wheat straw. M.Sc (Hons), Thesis, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, KPK. Agricultural University Peshawar.
Steel RGD, Torrie JH. 1980. Principle and procedures of statistics. Graw-Hill, M.C. Book Co., U.S.A.
Tiwari SP, Singh UB, Mehra UR. 1990. Urea molasses mineral blocks as a feed supplement: effect on growth and nutrient utilization in buffalo calves. Animal Feed Science and Technology 29(3-4), 333-241.
Van Soest PJ. 1982. Nutritional ecology of the ruminants. Durban and Downey Inc. Port land Oregon U.S.A.