Effect of fertilizers, time of pinching and harvesting method on growth and yield of spider plant (Cleome gynandra)

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/11/2018
Views (286) Download (12)

Effect of fertilizers, time of pinching and harvesting method on growth and yield of spider plant (Cleome gynandra)

George Chemining’wa, Jane Lukachi Ambuko, Sam Koile
Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.13( 5), 9-21, November 2018.
Certificate: IJAAR 2018 [Generate Certificate]


A study was conducted at Kabete Field Station, University of Nairobi to assess the effect of fertilizers, time of pinching and harvesting method on growth and yield of spider plant. Fertilization options (no-fertilizer control, 200 kg/ha di-ammonium phosphate, 10 t/ha chicken manure and 100 kg/ha di-amonium phosphate + 5 t/ha chicken manure), pinching (early pinching and late pinching) and harvesting method (piecemeal and wholesome harvesting) treatments were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with a factorial arrangement. Data were subjected to analysis of variance using Genstat software and means separated using the least significant difference test at P≤0.05. Fertilizer application, late pinching and wholesome harvesting significantly (p<0.05) increased fresh and dry leaf yield, number of leaves and branches per plant, plant height and canopy span. Application of 100 kg DAP/ha + 5 t/ha manure out-yielded the other treatment combinations in all the measured parameters. For instance, it produced the highest leaf yields of 1803.3 and 1740.9 kg/ha in the first and second season, respectively. Late pinching increased leaf yields by 1419.8 and 1385.2 kg/ha in first and second season, respectively, as compared to early pinched plants. Wholesome harvested plants had significantly higher leaf yields of 1411.1 and 1311 kg/ha than piecemeal harvested ones, in the first and second season, respectively. The results of this study show that growth and leaf yield of spider plant can be substantially increased by practicing fertilizer application, late pinching and wholesome harvesting.


Abukutsa-Onyango MO. 2003. The role of African indigenous vegetables in poverty alleviation in Kenya. Proceedings of the 1st PROTA International Workshop 23-25 September, 2002, Nairobi, Kenya, p. 269-270.

Aguyoh JN, Ng’etich OK, Ogweno JO. 2012. Effects of composted farmyard manure on growth and yield of spider plant, in Egerton University, Kenya. International Journal of Science and Nature 3(3), 514-520.

Allemann J, Van Den Heever E, Viljoen J. 1996. Evaluation of Amaranthus as a possible vegetable crop. Applied Plant Science 10, 1–4.

Alemu G. Bayu W. 2005. Effects of farmyard manure and combined N and P fertilizer on sorghum and soil characteristics in Northern Ethiopia. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 26(2).

Ayoola OT, Makinde EA. 2007. Complementary organic and inorganic fertilizer application: Influence on growth and yield of cassava/maize/melon intercrop with a relayed cowpea. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 1(3), 187-192.

Barimavandi AR, Sedaghathoor S, Ansari R. 2010. Effect of different defoliation treatment on yield and yield components in maize (Zea mays L.). Australian Journal of Crop Science 4, 9-15.

Bender RR, Haegele JW, Below FE. 2015. Nutrient uptake, partitioning, and remobilization in modern soybean varieties. Agronomy Journal. 107, 563–573.

Chweya JA, Mnzava NA. 1997. Cat’s Whisker. Cleome gynandra L. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben/International Plant genetic resources Institute, Rome, Italy. P 54.

Fusire M. 2008. Seed production manual for indigenous vegetables. A guide for small scale farmer. Community Technology Development Trust (CTDT). Harare, Zimbabwe.

Gnyandev B. 2006. Effect of pinching, plant nutrition and storage studies in China Aster (Callistephus chinensis L.). A Master’s degree thesis. Department of seed science and technology. College of agriculture. Dharwad University of agricultural sciences.

HCDA. 2012. Horticulture validated report. www.hcda.or.ke/statistics/horticulturep

HCDA. 2014. Horticulture Data 2011-2013 Validation Report. Horticultural Crops Development authority, February 2014, p 65.

Kamatenesi- Mugisha M, Oryem-Oringa H. 2007. Medicinal plants used to induce labor during childbirth in western Uganda. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 109, 1-9.

Kriedemann PE, Virgona JM, Atkin OK. 2010. Growth analysis: A quantitative approach. Plants in Action. Australian society of plant scientist, New Zealand Society of plant Biologists and New Zealand Institute of Agricultural and Horticultural Science. Accessed 28th November, 2015.

Kujeke GT, Gonye E, Ncube A, Masekesa RT, Icishahayo D, Matikiti A, Chabata.  2017. Field performance of spider plant (Cleome gynandra L.) under different Agronomic Practises. African Journal of Food Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 17 (3), 12179-12197.

Love HJ. 2014. Effects of fertilizer application and pinching on the yield of grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus). M.Sc Thesis, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

Masinde PW, Agong SG. 2011. Plant growth and leaf N of spiderplant (Cleome gynandra L.) genotypes under varying nitrogen supply. African Journal of Horticultural Science 5, 36-49.

Materechera SA, Seeiso MT. 2013. Biomass yields and crude protein content of two African indigenous leafy vegetables in response to kraal manure application and leaf cutting management. African Journal of Agricultural Research 9(3), 397-406.

Mavengahama S. 2013. Yield response of bolted spider plant (Cleome gynandra) to deflowering and application of nitrogen top dressing. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment. 11:1372-1374.

Mbugua GW, Gitonga L, Ndangu B, Gatambia E, Manyeki L, Karoga J. 2011. African indigenous vegetables and farmer-preferences in Central Kenya. Acta Horticulturae 911, 479.

Mibei EK, Ojinjo NKO, Karanja SM, Kinyua JK. 2012. Phytochemical and antioxidant analysis of methanolic extracts of four indigenous leafy vegetables. Annals Food Science and Technology 13(1), 37-42.

Michieka DO, Van Der Pouw BJA, Vleeshouwer JJ. 1978. Soils of the Kwale-Mombasa-Lungalunga Area, vol. I & II and Soil maps 1:100,000. Nairobi: Ministry of Agriculture, Kenya Soil Survey.

Ndor E, Dauda NS, Abimuku EO, Azagaku DE, Anzaku H. 2012. Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer and Spacing on Growth, Nodulation Count and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp) in Southern Guinea Savanna Agroecological Zone, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 4(4), 254-257.

Ogweno O, Mutua M, Richard R. 2015. NPK fertilization and deflowering increases leaf yield and extends the vegetative phase of Cleome gynandra (L.). International Journal of Plant and Soil Science 8(6), 1-8.

Onyango M, Kunyanga N, Ontita G, Narla D, Kimenju W. 2013. Current status on production and utilizationof spider plant (Cleome gynandra L.) an underutilized leafy vegetable in Kenya. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution Journal 60(6).

Prasad KN, Shiramurthy GR, Aradhya SM. 2008. Ipomoea aquatica, an underutilized green leafy vegetable: A Review. International Journal of Botany 4(1), 123-129.

Rathi SS, Singh D. 1976. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on growth and yield of Solanum nigram. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 21(3), 305-306.

Saidi M, Ngouajio M, Itulya FM, Ehler J. 2007. Leaf harvesting initiation time and frequency affect biomass partitioning and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguculata (L) Walp. Crop Science Journal 47, 1159 – 1166.

Singh A, Baoule AL, Ahmed HG, Aliyu U. Sokoto MB. 2011. Influence of Phosphorus on the performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) varieties in sudan savanna of Nigeria. Agriculture Science 2, 313-317.

Singh BB. 2006. Cowpea breeding advances, impacts and future. In: Proceedings International symposium. On the nutritional value and water use of indigenous crops for improved livelihood. University of Pretoria, the centre for Nutrition.

Sombroek WG, Graun HM, Van DP. 1982. Exploratory soil survey. Report No. E1. Ministry of Agriculture, Nairobi, Kenya.

Tittonell P, Giller KE. 2012. When yield gaps are poverty traps: the paradigm of ecological intensification in African smallholder agriculture. Field Crops Research 143, 76–90.

Uarrota VG. 2010. Response of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp) to water stress and phosphorus fertilization. Agronomy Journal 9, 87-91.

Wangolo E, Cecelia M, Onyango, Charles K. Gachene, Peter Mongare. 2015. Effects of shoot tip and flower removal on growth and yield of spider plant (Cleome gynandra L.) in Kenya. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture 8(6), 367-376.

Wasonga DO, Ambuko JL, Chemining’wa GN, Odeny DA, Crampton BG. 2015. Morphological characterization and selection of spider plant (Cleome gynandra) accessions from Kenya and South Africa. Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. p 1-9.