Effect of incorporating different concentrations of palm oil as adjuvant in fish vaccine

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/01/2018
Views (345) Download (23)

Effect of incorporating different concentrations of palm oil as adjuvant in fish vaccine

Sa’aidatun Asyikin Aminudin, Farina Mustaffa Kamal, Mohd Zamri-Saad, Siti-Zahrah Abdullah, Mohd Syafiq Ridzuan, Hanan Mohd Yusoff, Shahidan Hashim, Fahmi Sudirwan, Ismail Md. Salihin, Suphia-Amiera Sulaiman
Int. J. Biosci.12( 1), 35-41, January 2018.
Certificate: IJB 2018 [Generate Certificate]


Adjuvants play important role in vaccine efficacy due to the slow release that leads to prolong immune response. This study determines the advantage of palm oil as adjuvant in the newly developed feed-based killed vaccine against streptococcosis. One thousand two hundred red tilapia of approximately 100g bodyweight were divided into 3 major groups. Group 1 consisted of 500 fish and was further divided into 5 sub-groups with replicate. Group 2 consisted of 600 fish and was further divided into 6 sub-groups while Group 3 with 100 fish in replicate. Fish of Group 1 were vaccinated with the feed-based killed vaccine containing 0%, 3%, 5% and 7% Freund’s incomplete adjuvant (FIA) at weeks 0, 2 and 6. Group 2 was similarly vaccinated with the vaccine containing palm oil adjuvant (POA) at concentrations of 0%, 3%, 5%, 7% & 10%. Group 3 was control without vaccination. On week 10, all fish were challenged intraperitoneally with 2.6 x 109 cfu/ ml of live Streptococcus agalactiae. Serum samples were collected at weekly intervals from all replicates and were subjected to ELISA to determine the systemic antibody responses. Immunization by both POA and FIA resulted in significant (p<0.05) increase in the serum antibody levels (IgM) as early as week 1, while the level in the control group remained insignificant (p>0.05). The 10% palm oil adjuvant (POA) stimulated the best systemic immune responses resulting in 70% survival rate after challenge.


Chettri JK, Jaafar RM, Skov J, Kania PW, Dalsgaard I, Buchmann K. 2015. Booster immersion vaccination using diluted Yersinia ruckeri bacterin confers protection against ERM in rainbow trout. Aquaculture 440, 1–5.

Firdaus-Nawi M, Yusoff SM, Yusof H, Abdullah SZ, Zamri-Saad M. 2014. Efficacy of feed-based adjuvant vaccine against Streptococcus agalactiae in Oreochromis spp. in Malaysia. Aquaculture Research 45(1), 87–96.

Ghosh B, Bridle AR, Nowak BF, Cain KD. 2015. Assessment of immune response and protection against bacterial coldwater disease induced by a live-attenuated vaccine delivered orally or intraperitoneally to rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquaculture 446, 242–249.

Grabowski LD, LaPatra SE, Cain KD. 2004. Systemic and mucosal antibody response in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), following immunization with Flavobacterium columnare. Journal of Fish Disease 27, 573-581.

Ismail MS, Siti-Zahrah A, Syafiq MRM, Amal MNA, Firdaus-Nawi M, Zamri-Saad M. 2016. Feed-based vaccination regime against streptococcosis in red tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis mossambicus. BMC Veterinary Research 12(1), 194.

Klesius PH, Shoemaker CA, Evans JJ. 2000. Vaccination: a health management practice for preventing diseases caused by Streptococcus in tilapia and other cultured fish. In Fitzsimmons, K., & Carvalho F. J. (Eds.), Tilapia aquaculture in the 21st Century. Proceeding of the Fifth International Symposium on Tilapia Aquaculture, 2, 558-564. 3rd – 7th September 2000. Rio de Janiero, Brazil.

Klesius PH, Shoemaker CA, Evans JJ. 2008. Streptococcus: a worldwide fish health problem. Proceeding of the 8th International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, Cairo, Egypt. p. 83-107.

Latshaw JD. 1991. Nutrition – Mechanisms of immunosuppression. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 30(1), 111–120.

McElrath MJ. 1995. Selection of potent immunological adjuvants for vaccine construction. Seminars in Cancer Biology 6(6), 375–385.

Meydani SN, Berhaka AA. 1996. Recent development in vitamin E and Immune response. Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University. November 1996 : (II) S49- S58.

Rodrigues LC, Smith PG. 1999. Use of the case-control approach in vaccine evaluation: efficacy and adverse effects. Epidemiologic Reviews 21(1), 56–72.

Shamsuddin AF. 2012. Palm oil adjuvant for use in veterinary vaccine. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) (Retrieved August 14, 2017 from www.ukm.my/pik/11_175_palm-oil-adjuvant-for-use-in-veterinary-vaccines/

Singh M, O’Hagan DT. 2003. Recent advances in veterinary vaccine adjuvants. International Journal for Parasitology 33(5), 469–478.

Tafalla C, Bøgwald J, Dalmo RA. 2013. Adjuvants and immunostimulants in fish vaccines: Current knowledge and future perspectives. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 35(6), 1740–1750.

Wanasawaeng W, Tawatsin A, Sasipreeyajan J, Poomvises P, Chansiripornchai N. 2009. Development of inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine using palm oil as an adjuvant. Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine 39(1), 9–16.

Xu dong J, Cheng S, Hu Y, Sun L. 2010. Comparative study of the effects of aluminum adjuvants and Freund’s incomplete adjuvant on the immune response to an Edwardsiella tarda major antigen. Vaccine 28(7), 1832–1837.